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Week 1.2 - Paradigms, Theory & Social Research

Week 1.2 - Paradigms, Theory & Social Research -...

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Social’Research’Methods SOC’293 30’August’2012 Activity http://www.dothetest.co.uk/basketball.html Alternatives’to’Research Authority Tradition Common’Sense Media’Myths Personal’Experience Authority Rely’on’“Experts” Easy,’quick,’simple But’… Authorities’are’sometimes’wrong Experts’disagree’–’then’who’do’you’believe? Authority’is’sometimes’misused “Halo’Efect” Authority’in’one’area’spills’over’creating’a’perceived’authority’in’another’area’(prestigious’ university’example)’ Tradition Special’case’oF’authority’–’authority’oF’the’past Some’traditional’knowledge’begins’as’simple’prejudice Just’because’something’was’true’in’the’past’does’not’mean’ it’is’true’now’or’will’be’true’in’the’Future
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Common’Sense “Everyday’Reasoning” Allows’for’errors’and’logical’fallacies Observation Generalization Reasoning Re-evaluation Gambler±s’Fallacy’Example Media’Myths Media’tends’to’perpetuate’the’myths’of’a’culture Media’hype’can’create’a’sense’of’urgency’or’it’could’distort’ the’perceived’frequency’of’an’event’turning’a’rare’ occurrence’into’a’perceived’epidemic Competing’interests’use’media’to’win’public’support’ (manipulation) Global’Warming’Example Personal’Experience “Seeing’is’Believing” Influenced’by’beliefs’/’personal’orientations’/’judgments Four’Errors’of’Personal’Experience: Overgeneralization Selective’Observation Premature’Closure Halo’E²ect Personal’Experience Premature’Closure:’you’feel’you’have’the’answer’and’you’ don±t’need’any’more’information’so’you’stop’asking’
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questions’/’seeking’information’–’but’you’may’come’to’a’ diFerent’conclusion’if’you’had’spent’more’time’ investigating “Jumping’to’conclusions”’ Science’and’Social’Research Science’is’a’social’institution’AND’a’way’to’produce’ knowledge Scientists’use’specialized’techniques’to’collect’data’ (empirical’evidence) Scienti±c’community:’collection’of’people’that’practice’ science’with’a’set’of’shared’norms,’attitudes,’and’ behaviors Scienti±c’Method Refers’to’ideas,’roles,’techniques,’and’approaches’used’by’ the’scienti±c’community’to’generate’knowledge Attributes: Professionalism Craftsmanship Ethical’Integrity Rigorous’Standards Honesty Diligence Openness’about’procedures’used’for’a’study Journal’Articles How’knowledge’is’shared’in’the’scienti±c’community Peer’Review Unpaid Selectiveness:’top’journals’only’publish’10-15%’of’ submissions
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The’Research’Process Select’Topic Focus’Question Design’Study Collect’Data Analyze’Data
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