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SUbstance Use Lecture

2001 simulants cocaine obtained from coca leaves

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Unformatted text preview: exisIng cardiovascular problems ▫  Damage to lung structure and funcIon in long term users Opiates •  Opiates include: Opium, Morphine, Heroin, Codeine •  Opiates legally prescribed as pain medicaIons include: ▫  Hydrocodone acIve ingredient in Vicodin, Zydone, and Lortab ▫  Oxycodone the basis for OxyConIn, Percodan, & Tylox. •  Heroin – predominant illicit opioid ▫  EsImated 1,000,000 individuals addicted to heroin in US ▫  From 1995 to 2002, rates of use among adults 18 to 25 increased from 0.8% to 1.6% ▫  Heroin is more pure (25 to 50%) than in the past –༉  Increases likelihood of overdose •  OxyConIn prescripIons jumped 1800% between 1996 and 2000 Biobehavioral Effects of Opiates •  Euphoria, drowsiness, reverie, and lack of coordinaIon ▫  Loss of inhibiIon, increased self- confidence ▫  Severe letdown a`er about 4 to 6 hours •  SImulate receptors of the body’s opioid system ▫  Endorphins and enkephalins ▫  Primarily μ- opioid receptors •  Tolerance develops and withdrawal occurs ▫  Muscle soreness and twitching, tearfulness, yawning ▫  Become more severe and also include cramps, chills/sweaIng, increase in HR and BP, insomnia, & vomiIng Biobehavioral Effects of Opiates •  29 year study of 500 heroin addicts (Hser, et al., 1993) ▫  28% dead by age 40 –༉  Half by suicide, homicide, or accident –༉  One- third by overdose •  Many users resort to illegal acIviIes to obtain money for drugs ▫  The`, prosItuIon, dealing drugs •  Exposure to infecIous diseases via shared needles ▫  e.g. HIV ▫  Evidence suggests that free needles reduces infecIous diseases associated with IV drug use Emergency Room Visits for PrescripIon Opiates SedaIves •  Barbituates ▫  Induce muscle relaxaIon, reduce anxiety, produce mild euphoria ▫  In 1940s prescribed to aid sleep ▫  Usage declined from 1975 thru 1990s but increased recently •  Other syntheIc sedaIves ▫  Benzodiazepines –༉  E.g. Valium •  SImulate GABA system •  Heavy dosages ▫  Slurred spee...
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