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SUbstance Use Lecture

Heroin predominant illicit opioid esimated 1000000

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Unformatted text preview: nt of tobacco ▫  Targets nicoInic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) ▫  SImulates dopamine neurons in mesolimbic area –༉  Involved in reinforcing effect, including cogniIve enhancement Smoking: Prevalence and Health Consequences •  Cigarekes kill 1,100 people every day ▫  1 of 6 deaths related to tobacco use •  Lung cancer is most common cancer •  Decreases in smoking over the past 30 years; remaining smokers are “hard- to- treat” •  Cigarekes also cause or exacerbate: ▫  Emphysema, cancers of larynx, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, cervix, stomach ▫  Sudden infant death syndrome and pregnancy complicaIons ▫  Cardiovascular disease Marijuana •  Marijuana dependence is common – 8.2% •  Drug derived from the hemp plant (Cannibis sa(va) •  Acts on CB1 and CB2 receptors ▫  Two cannabinoid brain receptors ▫  High concentraIon in hippocampus –༉  Contributes to memory deficits •  Increased blood flow to emoIon regions ▫  Amygdala and anterior cingulate gyrus •  Decreased blood flow to temporal lobe ▫  Associated with auditory akenIon –༉  Poor performance on listening tasks •  Habitual use leads to tolerance ▫  Withdrawal symptoms also observed Effects of Marijuana •  Major acIve ingredient ▫  THC (delta- 9- tetrahydrocannabinol) •  Psychological ▫  Feelings of relaxaIon and sociability ▫  Rapid shi`s of emoIon ▫  Interferes with akenIon, memory, and thinking –༉  Decline in IQ over Ime ▫  Heavy doses can induce hallucinaIons and panic ▫  Impairment of skills needed for driving –༉  Impairment present for several hours a`er ‘high’ has worn off •  Physiological Bloodshot & itchy eyes Dry mouth and throat Increased appeIte Reduced pressure within the eye ▫  Increased BP ▫  Abnormal heart rate ▫  ▫  ▫  ▫  –༉  May exacerbate pre...
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