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Lecture 6 mood disorders

31 42 moderate heritability serotonin transporter

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Unformatted text preview: ression ü༏  Age risk between 18 and adolescents 43 ü༏  typical onset at the age ü༏  Rates increase in of 30 ü༏  In childhood both boys and girls are equally affected ü༏  2.5% of children ü༏  8.3- 10% of adolescents ü༏  After adolescence rates of depression increases for girls (2 to 1) Biological Causal Factors Hormones Heredity Biological factors Altered neuro- transmitter activity Stressful Life Events: Gene Environment Interaction .31-42 moderate heritability Serotonin transporter gene s-s allele; associated with neuroticism Neurotransmitter activity Ê༌  Monoamine theory of depression Ê༌  Depression due to lack of neurotransmitters from the monoamine class Ê༌  Low Norepinephrine and serotonin Ê༌  Involved in stress, activity, mood regulation Ê༌  Not true for all people with depression Ê༌  Other neurotransmitters also play a role Ê༌  Reduced Dopamine (pleasure and reward neurotransmitter) Stress hormones Sensitivity of loop decrease so more cortisol in system Brain structural differences Ê༌  Lower activity in left anterior prefrontal cortex Ê༌  Asymmetry between left and right activity Ê༌  Lower left activity leads to less approach and less positive affect Ê༌  Higher right- negative affect and increased vigilance for threat Ê༌  Decreased Hippocampal volumes Ê༌  May be related to overproduction of stress hormones Ê༌  Amygdala shows increased activation Ê༌  Perception of threat and directing attention Psychological Risk Factors Depression Stressful life events Early adversity or parental loss Cognitive Diatheses...
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