Paired comparison only 2 samples given panelists must

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Unformatted text preview: s, privacy) Clear instructions Evaluate samples in a way most commonly consumed May have to mask food color (lighting) Randomize order of presentation Limit number of samples (fatigue factor) Supply water, crackers Texture Sense of feel in regards to a food Fingers, tongue, palate, teeth, jaws Firmness, softness, chewiness, grittiness, crispness, etc. Critical for food quality Texture Especially important for some foods Ripening fruits and vegetables (softening or toughening) Bread and baked goods turning stale Crackers/Cookies softening Meats (who likes a tough steak?) Texture Measurement of texture Fruit pressure tester - peaches Compression = force to compress or puncture Texture Bloom gelometer - gels - force to penetrate Texture Measurement of Texture Shear Press Shearing and compression Shear press – used to mimic chewing Chemical assays for texture Water Fiber Alcohol insoluble solids Rheology “The science of deformation and flow of matter” Consistency, thickness, or viscosity Influences the appearance of foods “Mouthfeel” Heat penetration during cooking Ketchup, sauces, salad dressings, etc. Rheology Viscosity Newtonian flow vs. non-Newtonian flow Newtonian flow = viscosity does not change with a change in shear (agitation) water, pure solutions Non-Newtonian = viscosity changes with change of shear - many foods Egg whites, starch, protein Rheology Viscosity (Consistency) Bostwick consistometer = time for liquid to flow down inclined plane – ketchup Or….distance a food travels in a given time Rheology Viscosity (Actual measurements) Ostwald viscometer = time for liquid to flow through a tube Brookfield viscometer = measures force to rotate a spindle in a liquid Chapter 6 (Summary) You should have learned a great deal about color, flavor and textural properties of food. Color, flavor and texture are the main sensory attributes of characteristics that influence consumer preferences and thus are used as quality factors Colorants are consider certified or certified exempt, those exempt from certification are from natural sources or considered plant pigments Flavors are a combination of sensations resulting from chemical interactions between the flavor molecules in the food and the receptors of the tongue and olfactory system...
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