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Unformatted text preview: vergence between two alleles or the
proportion of nucleotide sites at which two alleles
randomly drawn from the population differ ! $ n 'L
" =&
)* (2 piqi ) L = ( 4 / 3)[(17)(0) + (2)(0.5) + (1)(.375)] / 20 = 0.0917
% n # 1( i=1
%
(
'
*
1*
" = S / L' n #1
= 3 / 20(1 /1.833) = 0.0818
'
*
' $1 / i *
& i=1 )
What is the standard error of these estimates? Recall that standard error = √Var"
68% of estimates lie within one standard error"
95% of estimates lie within two standard errors"
!
99.7% of estimates lie within three standard errors"
"
Assignment: calculate 95% conﬁdence intervals for these estimates of nucleotide variability" 8 Three equations to know
from Neutral Theory
1. What is the mean time to ﬁxation for a new NEUTRAL mutation? t = 4Ne generations (diploids)
also = coalescence time (how far back for all modern
copies to trace to a single ancestral copy)
2. What is the rate of molecular evolution? (what is the rate of substitu...
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 Spring '10
 Reinthal
 Evolution

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