November 14 - November 14, 2007 Pre-Imperial Roman State...

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November 14, 2007 Pre-Imperial Roman State Cults The Roman religious calendar ( Fasti ) o Origins Aition : introduced by King Numa Evolves with state (monarchy, republic, empire) Early, regal-period (festivals in large letters) o Not included: Capitoline festivals 10 months (March-December) + intercalary period Later addition of 2 more (January, February) o Many later reforms By Julius Caesar and August: “Julian Calendar” Basis of modern calendar o Set by pontifices , magistrates and senate Announced monthly by rex sacrorum Calendar for courts, military campaigns, etc. Fixed and movable holidays Preserved (official chronology) o Two basic forms Natural: 365 days; zodiac, agricultural calendar Civic: 355 days + 22-3 intercalary days Julian reform: synchronize natural and civic o 46 BCE: 445 days (“lat muddled year”) o Principle division of time: fas / nefas (~2/3 of year) Dies fasti : for human action ( profanii ) Dies nefasti : for religious ritual; mainly odd-numbered Dies intercisi : part of day fas , part nefas Sibyl and Sibylline oracles o Cumae: central Italian volcanic site (sacral natural site) Roman identify with / assimilate Mediterranean cults of prophetic priestesses (Sibyls) Greek cult of Apollo (prophecies in Greek hexameters) o Mythical aition Sibyl: priestess of Apollo cursed with prophecy and longevity
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course CLT 3371 taught by Professor Marks during the Fall '07 term at University of Florida.

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November 14 - November 14, 2007 Pre-Imperial Roman State...

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