October 15 - Exam 1 Review

October 15 - Exam 1 Review - Exam 1 Review 5 sections o...

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October 15, 2007 Exam 1 Review 5 sections o Origins: early religion, Minoans and Mycenaens o Sacred acts, people, places and things o Social context: oikos and polis o The gods o Death, theology, iconography Origins of Grace-Roman religion o Model for the origins of religion Basis Made killing a sacred act to control violence Intro to rebirth cycle through agriculture Timeline: 100,000 BP; 40-13,000 BP; 9000-3000 BP 40,000 BP: ceremonial burial with Neanderthals (recognize supernatural world) 15-20,000 BP: Last Ice Age 13,000 BP: Cro-Magnon everywhere; domestication and irrigation = farmer take-over 7500 BCE – Catal Huyuk is 1 st permanent city Early Humans Slow diffusion: Fertile Crescent in 9,000; Greece in 5,000; Italy in 1,400 BCE Hunters still in north Hunter culture: burial, sacrifice, art Sacrificed mainly animals, humans in extreme situations Myths used to justify sacrifice Cro-Magnons bring art around 35,000 BP (jewelry, sculpture, painting) Venus-figurines are first evidence of religion Neolithic culture: sacrifice, deities, civic religion (Catal Huyuk) Venus = life of wild life of earth, crops Sacrifice domestic animals Catal Huyuk – 7500 BCE o 5-10,000 people o Social classes o Religious shrines, altars, paintings, temples Blend wild/domestic (bull horns) o The IE hypothesis Basis Synchronic relationships explained diachronically Divergence marked by similarities
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Evidence: DNA, social institutions Timeline: 5000 BCE, 2000 BCE Last wave in 2000 BCE to Italy/Greece Didn’t take over large empires Problems Many bias Racism/imperialism of time when developed (WWII) Romanticized view of history Big generalities Fails to account for recent research (horse DNA, dis-similar cultures) Alternative: language-farming theory Fertile Crescent ~9000BP Diffusion of technology (7000 BP – Greece) Short, multiple migrations = language change is gradual Explains lack of similar ethnicities, cultures, displacements/fusions/isolations Creates a mosaic through “hold outs”
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October 15 - Exam 1 Review - Exam 1 Review 5 sections o...

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