Lecture 26 Signal Transduction

Lecture 26 Signal Transduction - Lecture 25 Cell-cell...

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Lecture 25 Cell-cell signals Hydrophobic signals Hydrophilic signals Phosphorylation cascades GTP switch proteins G protein linked receptors Receptor tyrosine kinases
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Main Points The chemical nature of the signal determines where the receptors are located in the cell G protein linked receptors work through second messengers Enzyme linked receptors activate downstream proteins by serving as docking sites, change activity of protein once it binds
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Cell-Cell Signaling using Soluble Molecules Each specific molecule must have a specific receptor in the target cell, allowing it to respond to the signal Nature of the signal molecule dictates type of receptor needed Steroid (and other hydrophobic) hormones use cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors Peptide (and other hydrophilic) hormones require cell surface receptors 0
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Steroid Hormone Action Moderately slow acting, hours to days 0
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0 “Enzyme linked” receptors Example: Receptor Tyrosine Kinases G protein linked receptors Routes for Transmitting Extracellular Signals via Surface Receptors Activated receptor serves as docking site for other proteins
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Signal Transduction Often Uses “Kinase Cascades” Protein Kinase: enzyme which phosphorylates a protein (changing its activity) 0
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