psychreview - 62.1 POINTS OF FOCUS COVERED IN EXAM #4 Chpt...

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62 POINTS OF FOCUS COVERED IN EXAM #4 Chpt 15 1. The Raymond Cattel personality inventory: describe the philosophy behind it, its construction, and its evolution in the hands of subsequent researchers. Trait theory: trying to be descriptive and find a way to characterize people by reference to underlying traits. Dictionary lists 18,000 traits and Cattel pruned this to 4,500 and then down to 171 for his classification system (taxonomy). Judges analyzed people based on these and the list was again shortened to 16 primary personality dimensions that describe the opposite poles. Warren Norman then took the list from 16 to 5: extroversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. 2. Eysenck’s personality classification scheme involving two independent scales: what are they? Eysenck tried to encompass personality differences by using two independent dimensions: Neuroticism (stable vs. unstable) and Extroverted vs. Introversion. Later Psychoticism was added. 3. What criticisms have been leveled against Trait Theory? Consistency Controversy: Walter Mischel argued that people do not behave as consistently from one situation to the next as trait theory would suggest (kid might cheat on a test but then not cheat in a sports game). This gave way to situationalists—people behave consistently because we see them often in similar situations. 4. What criticisms have been leveled against the above criticisms? Sometimes people have strong situational consistency and sometimes weak consistency and in this weak consistency perhaps they show the traits lying underneath. Both work together so you need to average behavior over a big timeline—also this is because of self-monitoring. 5. What’s the evidence for genetic contributions to personality? Twin studies show that there is a genetic correlation for personality. 6. What physiologically may characterize “sensation seekers” and be the motivation for such seeking? Evidence that norepinephrine in the spinal fluid was lower in sensation seekers so they might be trying to make up for this biological deficit. This also makes them more inclined to do drugs that give dopamine highs. 7. What is “inhibited temperament” associated with? Associated with introversion. Show lower activation threshold in amygdala to novel stimuli. The amygdala helps in threat evaluation so with the lower threshold, they will be less likely to take social risks. 8. Different levels of social environment—cultural, family, and within-family—can affect personality. Give examples of each as discussed in Chpt 15. Cultural: Some clichés are true (like collectivists tend to be more introverted and individualists tend to be more extroverted), Whether a culture relies on hunting or agriculture or how their society is set up affects how children are raised and thus their later personalities. Family: Findings show there isn’t a big correlation for adopted kids and their new siblings.
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Coons during the Fall '07 term at NYU.

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psychreview - 62.1 POINTS OF FOCUS COVERED IN EXAM #4 Chpt...

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