Geography Review3

Geography Review3 - Geography Review Chapter 12 Relief...

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Geography Review Chapter 12 Relief: Vertical elevation differences in the landscape Topography: Form of Earth’s surface Crustal Orders of Relief: Geographers group landscape’s topography in 3 group o First Order: Continents and oceans; coarse: above or near sea level o Second Order: Intermediate level of landforms, both continental and ocean-basin. Continental include mountains, plains, and lowlands o Third Order: Most detailed order; includes individual mountains, cliffs, valleys, and hills Crustal Formation: Effects of tectonic activity o Continental Shield: Area where ancient crystalline rock ( craton ) is exposed. Newer sediment forms around it o Terranes: Migrating piece of Earth’s crust, dragged about by mantle convection and plate tectonics. o Ocean plates are created from divergence, which creates new land when it runs into land through subduction Crustal Deformation: Rocks are subjected to tectonic forces, gravity, and weight of other rocks o Stress: Tension (stretching), Compression (Shortening), Shear (Twisting or tearing) o Strain: A rock can respond to stress by folding (bending) or faulting (breaking) o Folding: Result of rocks being compressed together Syncline is bottom of the fold; Anticline is top of fold o Faulting : Pieces on either side of a fracture moving (Fault plane is break) Normal: Move away along fault plane (Downward shifting side is hanging wall. The other piece is the footwall) Reverse: Toward each other along fault plane Strike-Slip: Move side by side (San Andreas) Orogenesis: Birth of Mountains; uplift of crust o Oceanic-Continental Collide: Subduction (Andes) o Oceanic-Oceanic: produce volcanic island or complex arcs (Indonesia) o Continental-Continental: Intense folding; Alps Earthquakes o Focus: Area along fault plane where seismic waves start o Epicenter: Area directly above the focus on the surface o Aftershock is late tremors; foreshock are some early tremors o Richter Scale measures the amplitude of seismic waves. Movement Magnitude Scale is more effective because it measures fault plane movement o Mercalli scale measures the intensity Volcanism: 60 eruptions each year; result of internal energy; plate tectonics; hot spots
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o Lava: Molten Rock o Pyroclastic Flow: Pulverized rock and clastic materials of various size that eject violently o Cinder Cone: Small, cone shaped hill; made of pyroclastic material o Caldera: Result of summit collapsing in on itself after eruption o Effusive Eruptions pour out of the surface and produce a
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course GEOG 110 taught by Professor Kernan during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Geneseo.

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Geography Review3 - Geography Review Chapter 12 Relief...

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