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Test 1 Study Guide

Test 1 Study Guide - Biology Study Guide BASIC SCIENCE...

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Biology Study Guide BASIC SCIENCE Science: Acquiring knowledge, understanding Knowledge is concerned with the natural world and its phenomena A human process whose objective is to gain an understanding of the natural world through the use of a systematic method inquiry. Science is LIMITED! There is Pure (based on curiosity) and applied science (seeking answers to specific questions, cancer) Controlled Experiment: Has a control group, experimental group and variables. Control Group- A standard for comparison Identical to experimental group except for variable being studied Experimental Group- Includes one variable being studied Treatment is typically added Variables: 1. Independent: The one being tested (hypothesis) 2. Dependent: Depend on the independent variable (the determinants). What is being measured 3. Controlled (different than control group): Remain Constant ***Only one variable is changed at a time ***Confounding variables are things that we cannot control Properties of Life Living—Animals, plants, bacteria, fungi, protests Non-living—rocks, chairs, plastic, artificial/manmade objects, elements All organisms 1. Consist of one or more cells 2. Have the capacity to reproduce based on instructions in DNA 3. Engage in metabolism 4. Sense and respond to the environment ***all living things come from other living things Organisms maintain certain conditions in their internal state Feedback mechanism Emergent Properties- New properties emerge at each step upward in organizational level (because of interactions among lower levels) Organisms are grouped into three domains: Broad classification 1. Eubacteria (Bacteria)—Most common 2. Archaebacteria (Archaea) 3. Eukaryotes (Eukarya) Taxonomy: Two part naming system (binomial nomenclature) First name capitalized
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Second name lower case Italics Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Single cell vs. Single cell or more than one cell No Nucleus vs. Nucleus and organelles Smaller, less complex vs. Larger, more complex Archaebacteria, eubacteria vs. Fungi, protest, plants, animals Levels of Organization 1. Atom 2. Molecule 3. Cell 4. Tissue 5. Multi-cell organisms 6. Population 7. Community 8. Ecosystem 9. Biosphere CHEMISTRY Each atom has subatomic particles. They are the basic elements of life Molecules allow atoms to interact with one another (chemical bonds) Subatomic particles- protons (+), neutrons, and electrons (-). Electrons are much smaller and are constantly moving at the speed of light. The protons and neutrons are stuck inside the nucleus. The atomic number is the top number and the atomic mass is the bottom number. The atomic number is the defining characteristic. The atomic number is the number of protons .
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