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Thus the thalamus is inhibited and thalamic

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Unformatted text preview: tex neuron To body motor neurons Parkinson Disease (PD) •  Consequences of Parkinson’’s Disease (PD)  ­ SubstanEa Nigra Normally Excites Striatum; Death of SubstanEa Nigra (with PD) leads to (a) loss of A ­B pathway, (b) increased inhibiEon of thalamus (VA/VL) and (c) loss of excitaEon of cortex Basal Ganglia involved in the coordinaMon and iniMaMon of movement Direct pathway Indirect pathway Circuits in basal ganglia 2 pathways, D1 & D2 die off making it difficult to excite thalamus, thus iniMaMng movement becomes difficult, Direct pathway is more responsible for parkinson’s Meri Gukasyan LOTS OF DOPAMINE NO DOPAMIME In PD, striatal output to the globus pallidus is reduced (loss of D1 signals) and excitatory input to the globus pallidus from the subthalamic nucleus predominates. Thus the thalamus is inhibited and thalamic information does not reach the cortex. Major PD symptoms are difficulty in initiating movement. Meri Gukasyan One of the newest treatments for Parkinson’s disease . In this study fetal dopamanorgic stem cells are implanted onto the caudate-putamen of parkinson’s patients. L-dopa tagged with a tracer was used to study the production of dopamine. •  As dopamine is produced symptoms of parkinson’s are decreased therefore the treatment is working. Circuitry of the basal ganglia Direct Pathway •  Cortex (sEmulates) → Striatum (inhibits) → "SNr ­ GPi" complex (less inhibiEon of thalamus) → Thalamus (sEmulates) → Cortex (sEmulates) → Mus...
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