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Unformatted text preview: xample Example ► Prob. 4­53 (variation). A 10mm. steel bolt (Est = 200 GPa) is surrounded by bronze sleeve with 10 mm. ID and 20mm. OD(Ebr = 100 GPa). If the nut is turned one rotation past “snug,” what are the stresses in the bolt and sleeve? The standard pitch for a 10mm bolt is 1.5mm. Assume bolt and sleeve length is 100mm. Thermal Effects Thermal Effects ► Changes in temperature produce expansion and contraction in materials resulting in thermal stresses and thermal strains. ► The rate of change of different materials to temperature changes is governed by the coefficient of thermal expansion, α. Units = ε/°C(°F) Units ► The elongation (or contraction) is governed by, δT = α(ΔT)L T)L Thermal Effects Thermal Effects ► If the ends of the rod are constrained to prevent the free expansion, δT...
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