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Unformatted text preview: s and could
be targeted for diagnosis and therapy Neurodegeneration vs. aging
• During aging
• Increased oxidative stress
• Perturbed energy homeostasis
• Accumulation of damaged proteins
• Lesions in cells nucleic acids Acceleration of things that Are
Healthy control, we have
accumulation of aggregations. • Changes are exacerbated in vulnerable
populations of neurons in neurodegenerative
• Neurodegenerative disorder occurring depends on
• Genetic factors
• Environmental factors Genetically predisposed to
have or not have disorder.
less likely to get a certain
disorder. your genetic play
disruption in the body.
oxidative stress.. all these
come together to cause a
disease all these
disorder Common features
• Neurodegenerative diseases share the common property of loss of specific populations of neurons
• The particular system affected determines the clinical presentation
• It remains one of the major unattained goals of modern research on the degenerative diseases to determine the
molecular basis for selective vulnerability Who, where and when
of neuronal death in
diseases Start at Hippocampus
blue onset occurs with AD
PD substantia nigra.Late onset
in the 7th decade. HD its really
in basal ganglia,
striatum ,GABA inhibitory • DA neurons in PD
• Motor neurons in ALS
• Cholinergic and glutamatergic neurons in AD
• GABA inhibitory neurons in HD
Text Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2006 7:278-294 Common Features in Neurodegeneration
• Increased cell death
• Protein misfolding and aggregation in the intracellular or extracellular matrix what is happening to
the neurons ?
Increase cell death
inﬂammaton • Mitochondrial dysfunction, increased oxidative stress and production of ROS • Excitotoxicity
• Inflammation Common features - Cell death
• Three major morphological types of cell death have been described:
• Necrotic cell death
• Autophagic cell death We lose neurons.
Cell can die by apoptosis
Necrotic cell death Degeneration in cortical neurons Normal Degenerating Dead Cell dies ,it starts have a different shape,
degenerating, starts dying , condensing ,we
cant see the cells anymore Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism (2011) 31, 328–338 Common features - Cell death
• Apoptosis - characterized by chromatin condensation, n...
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This document was uploaded on 02/03/2014.
- Winter '14