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Unformatted text preview: l alterations. As a result, most men with this condition are not diagnosed unless they seek fertility counseling as adults. Klinefelter syndrome also includes other genetic variations that result from multiple X chromosomes in association with a Y chromosome, such as: 48,XXXY, 49,XXXXY, etc. Increasing numbers of X chromosomes are accompanied by increased physical abnormalities including mental retardation. meiosis A process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that reduces the total number of chromosomes from the normal diploid state to half that number (haploid) and results in the production of sperm and eggs. 180 Glossary mitosis The most common form of cell division. It results in two identical daughter cells with an equal, diploid number of chromosomes. oogenesis The biological process that results in the production of ova (which begin their lives as oocytes). orchidectomy Surgical removal of one or both testes. Sometimes also called an orchiectomy. ovotestes Gonads that include tissues characteristics of both ova and testes. phalloplasty Surgical construction of or alteration of the penis. Usually done to make a person more closely resemble an average male. pseudohermaphrodite A catchall word to describe disorders of sexual development that do not result in true hermaphrodites. It includes individuals with internal genitalia of one sex and external genitalia of the other, or individuals in which the karyotype does not correspond to the appearance of the external genitalia. sex chromosomes In most mammals, the sex chromosomes are the chromosomes that Glossary 181 determine the sex of the individual. In humans these are the X and Y chromosomes: 46, XX usually being female and 46,XY usually being male. sex-determining region of the Y chromosome The region on the Y chromosome that contains the genes necessary to make a developing fetus into a male. This region is also known as SRY (sex region Y). spermatogenesis The biological process that results in the production of sperm (which begin life as spermatocytes). testosterone A steroid hormone produced primarily in the testes (but also to a lesser extent from adrenal androgens) that is responsible of the production and maintenance of male sexual characteristics, including the external and internal genitalia along with the production of sperm. Turner syndrome A chromosomal variation in females that is characterized by the absence of all or part of a second sex chromosome in some or all cells. The physical features of women with Turner syndrome often include webbing of the neck, short stature, shortened fourth and fifth fingers, broad chest, cardiovascular abnormalities, and gonadal dysgenesis (streak ovaries). Women with Turner syndrome are usually infertile due to failure of ovarian development. urogenital ridge A pair of fetal structures that appear early during development. A uro- 182 Glossary genital ridge contains material from which the gonads, the external and internal genitalia, the kidneys, the adrenal glands, and the urogenital system will develop. urogenital sinus Also known as the persistent cloaca, the urogenital sinus is a part of the human body usually present only during the development of the urinary and reproductive organs. It is the lower part of the cloaca, formed after the cloaca separates from the rectum. It eventually becomes, among other things, the bladder. A urogenital sinus anomaly is also a rare birth defect in women where the urethra and vagina both open into a common channel. vaginoplasty A surgical procedure that is performed to reshape, refine, reconstruct, or construct a vagina in human beings. In children, the most common goal of vaginoplasty is to construct or refine a vagina to a point where it will function in normal sexual intercourse. Resources Web Sites Accord Alliance A nonprofit organization established by a national group of health care and advocacy professionals to promote comprehensive, integrated approaches to care that enhance the health and well-being of people and families affected by disorders of sex development. The group fosters collaboration among all involved and works to ensure that new ideas about best care are disseminated and implemented across the United States. Accord Alliance does not provide direct support services, but the site does provide links to resources for families and patients including books, organizations, and a list of support groups. Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group (AISSG) The following is a partial list of topics at this UK site: What is AIS?, Complete AIS, Partial AIS, Related Conditions, Group Meetings, Rais- 183 184 Resources ing Awareness, Personal Stories, Obtaining/Facing Diagnosis, Orchidectomy (Gonadectomy), HRT/Osteoporosis, Vaginal Hypoplasia, Genital Plastic Surgery, Recommended Clinicians, Research Studies, and Fertility Advances. Much of the information is available in many languages besides English. Bodies Like Ours This site offers several forums for discussi...
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This document was uploaded on 02/04/2014.

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