Between+XX+and+XY:+Intersexuality+and+the+myth+of+two+sexes

Pseudohermaphrodites 8788 study of 29 as word 27

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Unformatted text preview: divided, 10–11 asexual reproduction, 35–36, 38. See also parthenogenesis Ashkenazi Jews: mutations among, 99 Australia, 117 bacteria: changes in, 39; sexless reproduction of, 35 Bahuchara Mata, 145 bakla, 149 Barr body, 3. See also sex chromatin Bartholin, Kaspar, 20 berdache, 146–47; mocking of, 150; roles of, 148–49; spiritual powers of, 147, 150 Bhairava, 143. See also Ardhanarishwar; Lord Agni; Nataraja; Shiva the Divine; Vishnu bichas, 149 birth control, 46 Bonobo Conservation Initiative, 41 bonobos, xii, 41; food, reaction to, 44–45; sexual activities of, 42–45 Brahma, 143–44 Brazil: not-men in, 149 British Columbia, 108 Carcano, G. B., 20 Carroll, Lewis, 38 Catholic Church, 15, 17 Chase, Cheryl, 119. See also Brian Sullivan chimera, 66 chimeras: and gonads, 67; mosaics, 67 chimerism, 77 chimpanzees, 41–43 China, 152 chromosomes, 162; and anomalies, 64; 45,X karyotype, as most common, 64; girls v. boys, 29; and mosaics, 65; and nondisjunction, 62; and proteins, 60–61; unusual numbers of, 63– 64; varieties of, xi–xii, 29, 60–61 clitoral index, 117 clitorectomy, 136 clitoris: discovery of, as controversial, 19–20 clitoroplasty, 121–22, 136–37; and sexual function, 139–40. See also genitoplasty cloacal exstrophy, 117, 131–32, 157; and anxiety disorders, 141; as life threatening, 141 clownfish, 112 Columbus, Matteo Renaldus, 18, 21, 154; clitoris, discovery of, 19; plagiarism, charges of, 20 congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), 69, 71–72, 119, 121, 123, 152; and androgens, 138; and clitoroplasties, 139; and genital ambiguity, 120; mutations, as cause of, 99 The Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders, 119, 124 Index The Copulation (Leonardo), 13 cortisol, 71, 99 Crow tribe, 148–49 Cull, Melissa, 138–39, 159 cultural heritage: and conformity, 151 Cushing disease, 69, 71–72. See also hypercortisolism cystic fibrosis, 7 Daaboul, Jorge, 118 Daniels, Garnett, 38 Dawkins, Richard: selfish gene hypothesis of, 36–38 dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 56–57 Demeter, 27 Democratic Republic of Congo, 41 Descartes, 28 desert hedgehog: and Indian hedgehog, 76; and sonic hedgehog, 76 de Waal, Frans, 41–45 Diana, 153, 154 Dianne, 88–96, 98; and disorder of sex development, 97 Dickinson, R. L., 21–22 diethylstilbestrol (DES): as carcinogenic, 79; and lawsuit, 79, 81 dihydrotestosterone, 56, 109 diploid cells, 48 disorders of sex development (DSDs), 7, 116–17; and gender assignment, 119; and surgery, 132. See also intersex; pseudohermaphrodites Down syndrome, 61 189 Dreger, Alice, 137–39, 141–42, 155–56, 158; and gender unpredictability, 159; and Will and Grace effect, 160 electrocautery, 128 embryonic development, 49–50, 53, 67; and amniotic sac, 50; and enzymes, 98; genitalia, development of, 54; and gonads, 51–52; and hormones, 52–53; and “juvenile pause,” 55; and secondary yolk sac, 50; and urogenital ridge, 51. See also human reproduction Enlightenment, 12, 18, 27 estradiol, 56 estrogen, 57 Eugenides, Jeffrey, 160 Europe, 117 European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology, 115 Fallopian tube: discovery of, 19 Falloppius, Gabriel: and clitoris, 19–20 Fatimah, 152 fibrous streaks, 65 Finds Them and Kills Them, 148– 49 fish: as hermaphroditic, 110–12; as sequential hermaphrodites, 110, 112; as simultaneous hermaphrodites, 110; and successive hermaphrodites, 111 5-alpha dihydrotesterone, 53, 56 5-alpha reductase: types of, 53, 56; and SRD5A2 gene, 109 190 Index 5-alpha reductase deficiency syndrome (5a-RD), 31–32 45,X, 63–65 46,XX, 6, 29, 31, 64–65, 67, 76–77, 87, 99, 119–20, 162 46,XY, 29, 67, 75–77, 100, 104, 109, 119, 132–35, 141, 158 47,XXY, 63 48,XXYY, 63 Frader, Joel, 118, 140–41, 158–60 Frank, Laurence, 101 Galen, 9, 13, 21; criticism of, 15–16; as influential, 11; on men and women, differences between, 11; as radical, 11 gay and lesbian rights movement: intersex people, effect on, 160 gender: as complicated, x gender assignment, 116, 135–36, 156; as amorphous, 134; at birth, as critical, 158; and disorders of sex development (DSDs), 119; in infancy, 30; “optimal sex” policy v. “true sex” policy, 30; physicians’ preference, as determined by, 118–19. See also sex reassignment Gender Diversity (Nanda), 148 gender dysphoria, 125 gender identity: and ambiguous genitalia, 158; and gender reassignment, 129; and surgery, 159 gender identity disorder (GID), 72 gender-identity selection: as process, 157–58 gender polarization, 161 gender unpredictability, 159 genitoplasty, 120–21, 138; and sexassignment surgeries, 136. See also clitoroplasty gobies, 111–12 gonadal dysgenesis: as complete, 75–76, 133; as partial, 75, 133 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH), 53, 55–56 gonads: and chimeras, 67; and embryonic development, 51–52; and hermaphroditism, 77; and utrogenital ridge, 99 Great Britain, 138 Greece, 26 Greek mythology, 25 Greeks, 12 gynecomastia, 62 Haldane, J. B. S., 114 hamlet fish, 110 haploid cells, 48 Hawaii: mh in, 149 Hemingway, Ernest, 100 hemophilia, 7 herm...
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This document was uploaded on 02/04/2014.

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