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Cognitive expectancies and environment negative

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Unformatted text preview: h or without agoraphobia might be difficult to escape or will be embarrassing or will have no help if panic attack does occur !  Strong genetic component !  Cognitive expectancies and environment (Negative) Anxiety Disorders, cont’d !  Phobic Disorder: unrealistic, excessive fear of a specific object or situation that impedes daily functioning !  In the DSM-IV: agoraphobia, social phobia, and specific phobia !  Genetic causes (e.g., evolutionarily adaptive) !  Environmental causes (e.g., learning through classical conditioning) -can develop phobia by witnessing through someone elses fear even though you have not had any negative exposures to it Anxiety Disorders, cont’d !  Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder !  Obsessions: recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses, or images that are intrusive and/or inappropriate and cause marked anxiety and distress !  Compulsions: repetitive behaviours or mental acts designed to counteract the anxiety caused by the obsessions Common Obsessions Commonly Associated Compulsions Fear of contamination Washing, cleaning Need for symmetry, precise arranging Ordering, balancing, straightening until “just right” Unwanted sexual or aggressive thoughts or images Checking, praying, “undoing” actions, asking for reassurance Doubts (e.g., door locked, stove off) Repeated checking behaviours Anxiety Disorders, cont’d !  Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: !  Exposure to extremely traumatic event and subsequently experience: 1.  intrusive recollections -> dreams, flashbacks 2.  avoidant/numbing symptoms -> feeling detached from others, inability to recall events of trauma 3.  hyper-arousal symptoms -> anger outbursts, difficulty sleeping -all symp†oms must been seen for at least 1 month...
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