Chapter 9 HO

H

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: rrier! Key(Point:( ( ! ! Nico8namide!adenine!dinucleo8de!! Electrons lose very little potential energy when they are transferred to NAD+ Each!NADH!molecule!can!be!“tapped!into”!to!make!ATP!when!the! electrons!complete!their!“fall”!down!the!energy!gradient!from!NADH! to!oxygen! ! ! How(do(electrons(that(are(stored(in(NADH(finally(reach(oxygen?( Not!in!a!one]step!exergonic!reac8on! *! ! Rather!in!a!mul8]step!exergonic!reac8on! Electrons "fall" close to electronegative O atoms *! ! *! This oxygen is the TERMINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTOR Cellular respiration!! This!explosion!powers!the!main! engine!of!the!space!shu1le! All come 2gether to make water!! This!mul8]step!reac8on!occurs!in!the!inner! mitochondrial!membrane!in!eukaryo8c!cells!and! plasma!membrane!in!aerobically!respiring! prokaryotes! NADH Glucose!!!!!!!!!!!Electron!Transport!Chain!!!Oxygen Let’s(look(at(the(last(slide(a(slightly(different(way:( and!enzymes! These!electron! carrier!molecule! can!be!“tapped! into”!to!make! ATP!! 2!NADH!+!H+! 2!NADH!+!H+! 2!NADH!+!H+! h1p://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26882/figure/A288/?report=objectonly! 2!NADH!+!H+! 2!FADH+! 2!NADH!+!H+! Stages(of(Cellular(Respira0on:((Cumula8ve!func8on!of!three!stages! ( ! ! ! Glycolysis:!!Occurs!in!the! cytosol! ! -Breaks down glucose into pyruvic acid and also creates a bit of ATP -Pyruvate converted to Acetyl Co-A which is used to KREBS CYCLE (citric acid cycle) Citric&Acid&Cycle:&&Occurs!in! the!mitochondria&&matrix! ! OxidaGve&PhosphorylaGon& Occurs!on!the!inner!membrane!of! the!mitochondria!in!eukaryotes!! ! *! Accounts for 90% of ATP generated by cellular respiration What(is(substrate(level(phosphoryla0on?( Direct!transfer!of!a!phosphate!group!from!an!organic!substrate!to!ADP!by!an!enzyme! *! Example:!!Step!10!of!Glycolysis! Glycolysis:(((Harvests(chemical(energy(by(oxidizing(glucose(to(pyruvate( Ten!step!process!that!takes!place!in!the!cytoplasm!–!does!not!require!oxygen! ! Energy!Investment!Phase:! 1&Glucose&(6!carbon)! ! ! 5!steps! & 2&Glyceraldehyde&3TPhosphate&(3!carbon)! Energy!Payoff!Phase:! 5!steps! 2&Pyruvate&(3!carbon)!+!2!H2O& Energy!Assessment:! Different(enzyme(catalyze(each(step:! Kinases:! Dehydrogenase:!!Reduce!NAD+!!to!NADH!+!H+! Steps(in(Glycolysis:( Energy!Investment!Phase:! Energy!Payoff!Phase:!...
View Full Document

This document was uploaded on 02/04/2014.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online