How do States Gain Security?Strategies for using force to gain security:•Deterrence•Defense•Preemption and Prevention•CompellenceTools for gaining security:•Security or Defense Alliances•Agreements
1. Deterrence•Persuading a potential enemy not to attack by threatening retaliation•Deterrence can discourage attacks against state (Direct Deterrence) or against allies and friends (Extended Deterrence)•Can be against active, named potential attacker (Immediate Deterrence) or against unnamed potential attackers in an insecure environment (General Deterrence)•Examples: Athens and Sparta before Peloponnesian War; U.S. and Soviet Union under Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
2. Defense•Deploying and using military force to protect oneself, ward off an attack, minimize damage from an attack.
3. Preemption and Prevention•Preemption: Use of military force to strike an potential enemy first when an attack is imminent.