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Exam Review - Chapter 19

Prercursors for a variety of biological products bile

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Unformatted text preview: golipids there are 3 subclasses of sphingolipids sphingomyelins: contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head gropu and are classifed as phospholipids glycosphingolipids: occur largely in the outer face of plasma membrane, have head groups with one or more sugars connected directly to the –OH at C- 1 cerebrosides: have a single sugar linked to ceramide globosides: glycosphingolipids with two or more sugars gangliosides: the most complex sphingolipids o have oligosaccharides as their polar head group and one or more resides of N- acetylneuraminic acid sphingolipids are prominent on the cell surface, but some serve as recognition sites o define human blood groups o present points of recognition for extracellular molecules or surfaces of neighboring cells o lysosomes degrade phospholipids and sphingolipids sterols: strucrtual lipids that present in the membranes of most eukaryotic cells o contain the steroid nculeos, consistering of four fused rings, three with six carbons and one with five o planar and rigid cholesterol: major sterol in animal tissues is amphipathic with a polar head gorpu and non- polar hydrocarbon body sterols serve as prercursors for a variety of biological products bile acids: polar derivatives of cholesterol that act as detergents 10.3 – Lipids as signals, cofactors, and pigments lipids can serve as potent signals such as hormones, enzyme cofactors, pigment molecules phosphatidylinositols and its derivatives act at several levels to regulate cell structure and metabolism membrane sphingolipids can serve as sources of intracellular messengers plants can produce different lipophilic compounds that act as signals o triggers the plant’s defenses in response to insect- inflicted damage o derived from fatty acids ubiquinone and plastoquinone are isoprenoids that function as lipophilic electron carriers in redox reactions that drive ATP synthesis dolichols: isoprenoid alcohols that are attached to sugar units have strong hydrophobic interactions with membrane lipids, anchoring the attached sugars to the membrane many pigments are conjugated dienes that allow delocalization of electrons o can be excited by low- energy electromagnetic radiation, giving things oclors polyketides: diverse group of l...
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