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Exam Review - Chapter 19

With long chain alcohols o sere as water reprellant

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Unformatted text preview: in water because the polar components of the carboxyl group of fatty acids and the hydroxyl group of glycerol are bonded serve as metabolic fuel o adipocytes, or fat cells, store large amounts of triacylglycerols lipases: enzyes that catalyze the hydrolysis of stored triacylglycerols, releasing fatty acids as fuel Triacylcerols serve as better energy sources than carbohydrates o Carbon atoms in fatty acids are more reduced and provide more energy than carbohydrates when oxidized o Doesn’t carry the extra weight of water Waxes are esters of long chain saturated nd unsatureated fatty acids with long- chain alcohols o Sere as water reprellant 10.2- Structural Lipids in Membranes double layer of lipids act as a barrier to the passage of polar molecules and ions membrane lipids are amphipathic: one end is hydrophobic, the other is hydrophilic 5 types of lipids phospholipids: polar head group is joined to the hydrophobic moiety by a phosphodiester linkage glycolipids: sphingolipids that havea simple sugar or complex oligosaccharide at the polar end glycerophospholipids: membrane lipids in which two fatty acids are attached in ester linkage to the first and second carbons of glycerol, and a highly polar or charged gropu is attached through a phosphodiester linknage to a third carbon o so two fatty acids and charged group glycerol is prochiral – has no asymmetric carbons but phosphate attachment converts it into a chiral compound contain a C16 or C18 saturated fatty acid at C- 1 contain a C18 or C20 unsaturated fatty acid at C- 2 ether lipids: one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol in ether, rather than ester likage ether- lined chain may be saturated, or may contain a double bond between C- 1 and C- 2, as in plasmologens galactolipids: one or two galactose residues are connected by a glycosidic linkage to C- 3 sphingolipids: have a polar head group and two nonpolar tails, contain no glycerol o composed of the amino alcohol sphingosine, one molecule of fatty acid, and a polar head group that is joined by a glycosidic or phosphodiester linkage ceramide: when a fatty acid is attached in amide linkage to the –NH2 on C- 2 o considered the parent structure of all sphin...
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