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Exam Review - Chapter 17

Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate glycolytic oxidation ffa

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Unformatted text preview: ts, preventing untimely lipid mobilization Hormones (glucagon, epinephrine) signal the need for energy o Triglycerides stored in tissue are mobilized and transported to tissues in which fatty acids can be oxidized for energy production o PKA triggers changes that open the lipid droplet to the action of three lipases Free fatty acids: fatty acids released from the adipocyte enter the blood and bind to protein serum albumin o Serum albumin binds up to 10 fatty acids o Fatty acids are carried by albumin to tissues such as muscle, heart, and renal cortex o Fatty acids dissocaitate from albumin in these tissues Glycerol kinase: phosphorylates the free glycerol o Converts into glycerol 3- phosphate glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate glycolytic oxidation FFA of 12 or fewer carbons can pass directly through membrane FFA of 14 or more carbons require the help of the carnitine shuttle Three Steps for Transferring Fatty acids into the Mitochondrion Carnitine shuttle: three enzymatic reactions Esterification to CoA o acyl- CoA synthetases: catalyze the formation of a thioester linkage between the fatty acid carboxyl group and the thiol group of coenzyme A to yield fatty acyl- CoA Transesterification to carnitine o Fatty acids destined for mitochondrial oxidation are attached to the hydroxyl group of carnitine to form fatty acyl- carnitine o Carnitine acyltransferase I: catalyzes the transesterification Transesterification back to...
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