Exam Review - Chapter 21

Converts pgh2 to thromboxane a2 from which other

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Unformatted text preview: Most of the malate produced in the cytosol is used to generate NADPH through malic enzyme • Results in consumption of two ATP for every molecule of acetyl- CoA delivered • After citrate cleavage to generate acetyl- CoA, conversion of the four remaining carbons to pyruvate and CO2 generates about half the NADPH for fatty acid synthesis Palmitate and stearate serve as precursors to the monounsaturated fatty acids, plamitoleate and oleate • Both of these fatty acids have a single cis double bond between C- 9 and C- 10 • Introduced into the fatty acid chain by fatty acyl- CoA desaturase, a mixed- function oxidase o Two substrates, the fatty acid and NADPH, undergo two- electron oxidations • Linoleate and α- linolenate are essential fatty acids o Can be converted to other polyunsaturated acids Eicosanoids are a family of potent biological signaling molecules that act as short- range messengers • Phospholipase A2 attacks membrane phospholipids to release arachidonate from glycerol • Enzymes can convert arachidonate to prostaglandins, starting with PGH2, the precursor of other prostaglandins and thromboxanes • Cyclooxygenase is an enzyme t...
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