Exam Review - Chapter 1

Related to archaea than bacteria organisms can be

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Unformatted text preview: enome, complete set of genes, composed of DNA • Cellular size is limited by diffusion of O2 (upper limit) and by the minimum number of each biomolecule (lower limit) • All organisms fall in 3 Domains of Life o Archaea o Bacteria o Eukarya • Archaea and Bacteria are single celled • Eukarya are multicellular and are more closely related to Archaea than Bacteria • Organisms can be either aerobic or anaerobic o Obligate anaerobes die when exposed to O2 o Facultative anaerobes tolerate O2 • Autotrophs: synthesize biomolecules directly from CO2 • Heterotrophs: require some preformed organic nutrients • Eukaryotic cells contain various organelles mitochondria, ER, Golgi complexes, etc. Cytoskeleton: meshwork of protein filaments (actin, microtubules, intermediate filaments) o Necessary for structure and organization, movement 1.2 – Chemical Foundations • Chemical similarities between plant and animal cells • Human body is made up of 4 main elements: H, N, O, C • Carbon is important for organization within living organisms o Form very stable single bonds with up to 4 other carbon atoms Can form double and triple bonds • Perform different functions base don functional groups • Different metabolites exist in the...
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