All Notes for GEOG 2253

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Unformatted text preview: nd rural China Richest countries in Southern Cone & Mexico Southern Cone: Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Chile Poorest countries—Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Honduras Brazil & Mexico the two largest economic engines Brazil’s economy is the 10th largest in the world Mexico’s economy is the 13th largest in the world Brazil maintains the worst income disparity 10% control half the countries wealth bottom 40% have less than 1/10th Long tradition of exporting to NA and Europe Historicallyrelied on “extractive” industries due to large resource base Spanish empire concentrated on precious metals Portuguese produced sugar products and coffee Banana Republics—Late 19th and early 20th century focused on one or two products (mainly for export) Bananas, coffee, meats, wool, wheat, corn, petroleum, copper (fluctuations in prices=bad economy) More recently the region has industrialized and diversify production More economically integrated into global economy Continue to be major producers for North America & Europe Most Gov. policies emphasize manufacturing Usually focused in capital or primate city Sao Paulo is the industrial giant of Latin America (then Mexico City) Latin America—Neoliberalism— Many states of adopted neoliberal economic policies— Greater openness to international trade and investment Export focused or oriented production Removal of price controls (free flow of goods and services) Deregulation—reduce government interference and control Privatization—sell state­owned enterprises (important) Banks, railways, Toll Highways, electricity and water Neoliberal policies transfer control of the economy from public (government) to the private sector (MNCs) Neoliberal policies have mixed results Some states experiences impressive economic growth (Chile) Increase disparity between rich and poor Despite economic growth poverty still remains a concern Maquiladoras— Assembly plants on the borders with the US More than 4000 exist Employ 1 million Assemble automobiles, electronics and apparel Completion from China Consequences— Loss of jobs for Americans Environmental degradation Problems for unmarried Latino women Informal Sector— Provisions of goods and services without registration, taxation or government regulation Self­employed, low­wage jobs Contributes a great deal to the economy Some illegal activities (drug activity, prostitution) Squatter settlements included in this sector Housing construction, manufacturing...
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2014 for the course GEOG 2253 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Oklahoma State.

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