All Notes for GEOG 2253

Erepairedandreusedbutmanyarebeyondrepair

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Unformatted text preview: 1945­1990) Russia (USSR) occupied Eastern Europe Western Allies occupied Western Europe East & West was divided by Iron curtain Ideological and physical boundary that divided Europe into two separate areas Berlin physically divided by Berlin Wall August 1961, until end of Cold War (1989) USSR occupied adjacent countries to make a buffer zone Physical boundary between Western Europe and Soviet Union A Divided Europe— Cold War meant constant threat between two alliances NATO in the West North Atlantic Treaty Organization Including the US Warsaw Pact in the East Stockpiled weapons, propaganda Red Dawn, Rocky IV (movies) Cold War Tension— Berlin Blockade (1948­1949) Korean War (1950­1953) Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)—Closest US & USSR came to using the nuclear weapons Vietnam War (1959­1975) Soviet War in Afghanistan (1979­1989) Cold War Thaw— Began November 9,1989, when the East & West Berliners joined to demolish of the Berlin Wall Causes— Political instability in Soviet Union USSR financial problems from supporting long war in Afghanistan Desire for economic and political change in the eastern European countries Revolutions in most Warsaw Pact countries were nonviolent, except in Romania Economic and Social Development— Birthplace of the Industrial Revolution—1730­1850 Industrial Revolution brought two main changes Machines replaced human labor in many manufacturing processes Spinning Jenny, steam machines, factories Inanimate energy sources such as water, steam, petroleum powered the machines England the center of innovation for industrialization and textile production Industrial Revolution began in England, and spread to continental Europe Development of industrial regions around 1820 Historically, Eastern Europe less developed economically than western Europe The Soviet Plan: Eastern Europe after WWII was a command economy Centrally planned and controlled All goods, services, agricultural products regulated Results of Soviet economic planning Communal farming decreased output and caused shortages Focus on heavy industry that relied on cheap fuel and raw materials from Soviet Union Created larger gap between East and West After the USSR collapsed, eastern Europe countries went through dramatic changes Most countries adopted capitalist economic systems and privatization was introduced Transfer of state­own...
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