Final Review

Final Review - Sediments Loose particles of inorganic...

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Sediments Loose particles of inorganic matter Records of chemistry, bio, physical conditions of earth Supply nutrients to oceans Source of gas, oil, minerals Sediment size- Sand>Silt>Clay Shows how far these particles can travel A sediment deposit shows us how about origin and transportation Sediment types- Terrigenous- coming from the earth- erosion of land, volcanoes, wind Rivers contribute most to sediment input (18 tons x 10^9) Fluxes from tropics, some from temperate, none from polar Glaciers- silts, sand, gravel, boulders to alpine regions Volcanoes- volcanic ash and glass- areas with volcanoes Dust- wind blown sand and silt into ocean from sahara, mid east, Australia Biogenous- shells, calcite, marine zooplankton mostly Chalk (CaCO3) and opal (SiO2 H20) Phytoplankton- plants, zooplankton- animals Opal- found in ocean only near upwellings, Chalk found in sea and ocean, but dissolves in deep sea Hydrogenous- precipitation of minerals from sea water i.e. med salt- Med dried out 6mya, leaving salt deposits deep sea vents- release minerals from ocean, metal minerals precipitate with super hot water that comes out. Cosmogenous- extraterrestrial meteorites and dust- glassy spheres Isotopes- different number of neutrons- mass differs Processes that affect oxygen amount usually change ratio of 16:18 If there’s moer 18, they will react more slowly in the environment Paleoceanography 150mya- warming of globe, N. Atlantic opened up 70mya- very warm climate, high seas level, India breaks from Antarctica, peak of dinos Chixculub- huge bolide impact in Yucatan that wiped out dinos. O18 harder to evaporate than o16, so can measure water temp and volume ice with ratio Polecat bench- increasing amount of red in soils- increase in iron oxidation- shows warmer, wetter climate 55mya- deep sea extinction, short lived species, rapid evolution, migration, increased plant diversification, sediment transport, negative shift in c13 ration- strong carbonate dissolution means that there had to be light carbon supply somewhere
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course EES 103 taught by Professor Oceanography during the Spring '08 term at Vanderbilt.

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Final Review - Sediments Loose particles of inorganic...

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