E asthma or pneumonia acute on chronic this occurs in

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Unformatted text preview: te on chronic: This occurs in patients with chronic CO2 retention who worsen and have rising CO2 and low pH. have and Mechanism: respiratory muscle fatigue Causes of Hypercapnic Respiratory failure Causes Respiratory centre (medulla) dysfunction Drug over dose, CVA, tumor, hypothyroidism,central Drug hypoventilation hypoventilation Neuromuscular disease Neuromuscular Guillain-Barre, Myasthenia Gravis, polio, spinal injuries Guillain-Barre, Chest wall/Pleural diseases Chest kyphoscoliosis, pneumothorax, massive pleural effusion kyphoscoliosis, Upper airways obstruction Upper tumor, foreign body, laryngeal edema tumor, Peripheral airway disorder Peripheral asthma, COPD asthma, Clinical and Laboratory Manifestation Clinical (non-specific and unreliable) Cyanosis Cyanosis - bluish color of mucous membranes/skin indicate hypoxemia hypoxemia - unoxygenated hemoglobin 50 mg/L unoxygenated - not a sensitive indicator Dyspnea Dyspnea - secondary to hypercapnia and hypoxemia Paradoxical breathing Confusion, somnolence and coma Convulsions Clinical & Laboratory Mani...
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