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Lecture 7 - Reproductive system - Lecture 7 A Human...

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Lecture 7 A. Human Reproduction C. Contraception, Birth Control, and STDs D. HIV-AIDS B. Artificial Reproductive Technology
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Reproduction The process by which “offspring” are produced from “parents” Continuation of the next generation May come easy for some but for others not
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Male reproductive system Source: Russell
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Female reproductive system Source: Russell
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Female reproductive system Source: www.nlm.nih.gov
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Human embryo - early stages in development Source: Russell
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Starr, 2008 The Ovarian and Menstrual Cycles
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FSH – follicle stimulating hormone LH – Luteinizing hormone GnRH – Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone Onset of menstrual flow on day one of a 28 day menstrual cycle A,B The anterior pituitary secretes FSH and LH stimulate a follicle to grow and an oocyte to mature in an ovary. A mid-cycle surge of LH triggers ovulation and the formation of a corpus luteum. The Ovarian and Menstrual Cycles
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A decline in FSH after ovulation stops more follicles from maturing. C,D Early on, estrogen from a maturing follicle calls for repair and rebuilding of the endometrium. After ovulation the corpus luteum secretes some estrogen and more progesterone primes the uterus for pregnancy. The Ovarian and Menstrual Cycles
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Starr, 2008 The Ovarian and Menstrual Cycles
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Week 4 Weeks 5-6 Starr, 2008
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Starr, 2008 Week 8 Week 16
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Starr, 2008 Child birth
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Artificial Reproductive Technology (ART) methods used to achieve pregnancy by artificial or partially artificial means Used primarily by couples with infertility issues or with genetic conditions Also used by people with communicable diseases such as AIDS to reduce risk of infection of partner
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Artificial Reproductive Technology (ART) 1. In vitro fertilization (IVF) Means fertilization outside of the body Often used when a woman's Fallopian tubes are blocked or when a man produces too few sperm The woman is treated with a drug that causes the ovaries to produce multiple eggs Mature eggs are removed and put in a lab petri dish with the man's sperm for fertilization. After 3 to 5 days, healthy embryos are implanted in the woman's uterus ( embryo transfer ).
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Artificial Reproductive Technology (ART) 2. Artificial insemination A procedure used to treat infertility that involves directly inserting semen to fertilize a woman’s egg
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Artificial Reproductive Technology (ART) 3. Sperm/egg/embryo cryopreservation A procedure to preserve sperm cells, egg cells or embryos Preservation is by cooling to sub-zero temperatures, typically
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