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Unformatted text preview: 229 Chapter 13 Structures, Properties, and Applications of Solids Crystalline solids have structures that are highly ordered, which has made their study much easier than liquids. We begin this chapter with discussions of the nature of this internal order, how it is described in simple ways, and how the properties of crystalline materials reflect the kinds of particles that make up a solid. The applications of solid materials, however, extend beyond those that are crystalline. Our goal in this chapter is to also introduce you to a variety of such materials and their uses, ranging from semiconductors to polymers to high tech ceramics found in modern electronic devices. We conclude by introducing you to a field of cutting-edge science called nanotechnology, which deals with structures having dimensions ranging from a few to several hundred atoms in size. Learning Objectives Throughout your study of this chapter, keep in mind the following objectives: 1 To learn how atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in crystalline solids and how we are able to describe their structures in simple ways. 2 To understand the concept of a lattice and how structures of crystalline solids can be de-scribed by giving the properties of a repeating unit called a unit cell. 3 To learn the properties of the three kinds of cubic unit cells. 4 To be able to count the number of atoms per unit cell given the arrangement of atoms in the cell. 5 To learn what distinguishes cubic and hexagonal closest packed structures. 6 To learn how the properties of amorphous solids differ from those of crystalline solids. 7 To see how data obtained by X-ray diffraction experiments are used to obtain structural information about crystals. 8 To learn how the physical properties of crystalline solids can be related to the kinds of particles at lattice positions and the kinds of attractive forces between the particles. 9 To learn how some substances solidify without forming a crystalline solid. 10 To learn how energy levels of atoms in a crystal merge to form energy bands. You should learn the distinction between valence and conduction bands, and how n- and p-type semiconductors differ. 11 To learn how a polymer is formed by linking many monomer units. 12 To learn how to write the formula for a polymer. 13 To learn how addition polymers are formed through free radical polymerization. 14 To learn the structures of polyethylene and polypropylene. 15 To learn how condensation polymers are formed by elimination of water or other small molecule. 230 Structures, Properties and Applications of Solids 16 To learn the basic structures of polyesters and nylons. 17 To learn what crosslinking means and how it affects the properties of a polymer....
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course CHEM 102 taught by Professor Bush during the Spring '07 term at UMBC.
- Spring '07