Chap_15 - Chapter 15 Kinetics: The Study of Rates of...

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270 Chapter 15 Kinetics: The Study of Rates of Reactions In this chapter we examine the factors that affect reaction rates and some ways of understanding how the fac- tors work. Learning Objectives As you study this chapter, keep in mind the following objectives. 1 To learn how the speeds of reactions vary over wide ranges and to learn about the infor- mation we gain by the study of speeds of reactions. 2 To learn about the kinds of things that influence how fast a reaction occurs. 3 To learn how rates of reaction are expressed and how they are measured. 4 To learn how the rate of reaction is related to the concentrations of the reactants. 5 To learn how to calculate the concentration of a reactant at any time after the start of a reaction for first- and second-order reactions. 6 To learn how the speed of a reaction is related to the time it takes for half of a reactant to disappear. 7 To learn why the rate of a reaction increases with increasing temperature. 8 To learn how to deal quantitatively with the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction. 9 To learn how the rate law for a reaction can give clues to the sequence of chemical steps that ultimately give the products in a reaction. 10 To learn how substances called catalysts affect the rate of a reaction, and to learn how homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts work. 15.1 The rate of a reaction is the change in reactant or product concentrations with time Review The term kinetics implies action or motion. For a chemical reaction, this motion is the speed at which the reac- tion takes place, the rate of reaction, and by that we mean the speed at which the reactants are consumed and the products formed. The speeds of reactions range from very rapid to extremely slow. One of the benefits of studying re- action rates and the factors that control them is the insights we gain into the mechanisms of reactions—the in- dividual chemical steps that produce the net overall change described by a balanced equation.
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Chapter 15 271 Self-Test 1. Why is it unlikely that the combustion of octane, C 8 H 18 , a component of gasoline, occurs by a single step as given by the equation 2C 8 H 18 ( g ) + 25O 2 ( g ) 16CO 2 ( g ) + 18H 2 O( g ) 2. Why would chemical manufacturers be interested in studying the factors that affect the rate of a reaction? New Terms Write the definitions of the following terms, which were introduced in this section. If necessary, refer to the Glossary at the end of the text. kinetics rate of reaction mechanism of a reaction 15.2 Five factors affect reaction rates Review There are five factors that control the rate of a reaction. 1 The chemical nature of the reactants : Some substances, because of their chemical bonds, just naturally react faster than others under the same conditions.
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course CHEM 102 taught by Professor Bush during the Spring '07 term at UMBC.

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Chap_15 - Chapter 15 Kinetics: The Study of Rates of...

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