BSCI201 Chapter 2.4 - 1 BSCI201 Chapter 2.4 Biochemistry Compounds in the Human Body Organic Organic Compounds 1 Carbohydrates a Monosaccharides b

BSCI201 Chapter 2.4 - 1 BSCI201 Chapter 2.4 Biochemistry...

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1 BSCI201: Chapter 2.4 Biochemistry: Compounds in the Human Body: Organic Organic Compounds 1. Carbohydrates a. Monosaccharides b. Disaccharides c. Polysaccharides 2. Lipids: neutral fats a. Triglycerides=triacylglycerol b. Phospholipids c. Steroids d. Eicosanoids 3. Proteins a. Fibrous and Globular Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids a. DNA b. RNA Organic Compounds ALL… 1. Contain carbon 2. Generally large 3. Synthesized by dehydration synthesis 4. Digested by hydrolysis 5. Carbon is a small atom that is electro-neutral a. Never loses or gains electrons but always shares them Organic: Carbohydrates 1. Classification of carbohydrates based on size and solubility Monosaccharides 1. General formula: (CH 2 O) n a. “Hydrates carbon” b. n=6 hexose sugars c. n=5 pentose sugars 2. Sweet 3. Soluble in water 4. Building blocks for the other classes of carbohydrates 5. 2 types of Monosaccharides: a. Hexose a.i. (CH 2 O) 6 a.ii. Glucose, Fructose, Galactose a.ii.1. Neurons exclusively use glucose b. Pentose b.i. (CH 2 O) 5 b.ii. Deoxyribose, Ribose Disaccharides 1. Composed of 2 hexose sugars 2. Sweet 3. Soluble in water 4. 3 types of disaccharides:
2 a. Maltose= Glucose + Glucose a.i. Grain sugar b. Sucrose= Glucose + Fructose b.i. Table sugar c. Lactose = Glucose + Galactose c.i. Milk sugar Polysaccharides 5. Composed of long, branch chains of glucose a. Storage form of glucose 6. Known as starch in plant cells and as GLYCOGEN in animal cells 7. Not sweet 8. Insoluble in water Function of Carbohydrates in the Body 1. Primary source of fuel in the body cells metabolize glucose to produce energy to support cellular activities a. Excess are stored as glycogen or converted to fat for storage 2. Carbohydrates attach to lipids (glycolipids) or proteins (glycoproteins) signal molecules for cells 3. Pentose sugars form part of the genetic material (DNA) and in protein synthesis (RNA) Organic: Lipids 1. Hydrophobic substances insoluble in water 2. Transported in blood (90%) covered by proteins to form lipoproteins 3. Dissolve in fats or organic solvents 4. 4 types: Neutral fats/Triglycerides 1. Composed of a glycerol backbone and 3 free fatty acid chains attached 5. Looks like the letter “E” Phospholipids 1. Composed of a glycerol backbone, 2 free fatty acid chains and a phosphorous-containing group Steroids 1. Derived from Cholesterol Eicosanoids 1. Derived from Arachidonic acids Organic: Lipids: Neutral Fats 1. Neutral Fats = Triglycerides = Triacyglycerol a. Found in fatty tissue where provide insulation and reserve body fuel 2. Most abundant form of fat in the human diet 3. Known as FATS when solid and OILS when liquid 4. 2 types of Neutral Fats: Saturated and Unsaturated 5. Nonpolar because of their hydrocarbon chains Unsaturated Fats: at least one double covalent bond in the carbon chain 1. Liquid at room temperature 2. Plant sources olive oil 3. At least 1 double bond exists between adjacent carbons Saturated Fats: single covalent bonds exist between all the carbons in the chain 1. Solid at room temperature 2. Single covalent bonds exist between adjacent carbons 3. Animal sources butter
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