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1BSCI201: Chapter 2.4Biochemistry: Compounds in the Human Body: Organic Organic Compounds1.Carbohydratesa.Monosaccharidesb.Disaccharidesc.Polysaccharides2.Lipids: neutral fatsa.Triglycerides=triacylglycerolb.Phospholipidsc.Steroidsd.Eicosanoids3.Proteins a.Fibrous and Globular Proteins4.Nucleic Acids a.DNAb.RNAOrganic Compounds ALL…1.Contain carbon2.Generally large 3.Synthesized by dehydration synthesis4.Digested by hydrolysis 5.Carbon is a small atom that is electro-neutral a.Never loses or gains electrons but always shares themOrganic: Carbohydrates1.Classification of carbohydrates based on size and solubilityMonosaccharides1.General formula: (CH2O)na.“Hydrates carbon”b.n=6 hexose sugarsc.n=5 pentose sugars2.Sweet 3.Soluble in water4.Building blocks for the other classes of carbohydrates 5.2 types of Monosaccharides:a.Hexosea.i.(CH2O)6a.ii.Glucose, Fructose, Galactosea.ii.1.Neurons exclusively use glucose b.Pentose b.i.(CH2O)5 b.ii.Deoxyribose, RiboseDisaccharides 1.Composed of 2 hexose sugars2.Sweet 3.Soluble in water4.3 types of disaccharides:
2a.Maltose= Glucose + Glucosea.i.Grain sugarb.Sucrose= Glucose + Fructoseb.i.Table sugarc.Lactose = Glucose + Galactosec.i.Milk sugarPolysaccharides 5.Composed of long, branch chains of glucose a.Storage form of glucose6.Known as starch in plant cells and as GLYCOGEN in animal cells7.Not sweet8.Insoluble in waterFunction of Carbohydrates in the Body1.Primary source of fuel in the bodycells metabolize glucose to produce energy to support cellular activities a.Excess are stored as glycogen or converted to fat for storage 2.Carbohydrates attach to lipids (glycolipids) or proteins (glycoproteins)signal molecules for cells3.Pentose sugars form part of the genetic material (DNA) and in protein synthesis (RNA)Organic: Lipids1.Hydrophobic substances insoluble in water2.Transported in blood (90%) covered by proteins to form lipoproteins3.Dissolve in fats or organic solvents 4.4 types:Neutral fats/Triglycerides 1.Composed of a glycerol backbone and 3 free fatty acid chains attached 5.Looks like the letter “E”Phospholipids 1.Composed of a glycerol backbone, 2 free fatty acid chains and a phosphorous-containing groupSteroids 1.Derived from CholesterolEicosanoids1.Derived from Arachidonic acidsOrganic: Lipids: Neutral Fats1.Neutral Fats = Triglycerides = Triacyglycerola.Found in fatty tissue where provide insulation and reserve body fuel 2.Most abundant form of fat in the human diet3.Known as FATS when solid and OILS when liquid4.2 types of Neutral Fats: Saturated and Unsaturated5.Nonpolar because of their hydrocarbon chains Unsaturated Fats:at least one double covalent bond in the carbon chain1.Liquid at room temperature2.Plant sources olive oil3.At least 1 double bond exists between adjacent carbonsSaturated Fats:single covalent bonds exist between all the carbons in the chain1.Solid at room temperature2.Single covalent bonds exist between adjacent carbons3.Animal sources butter