BSCI201 Em Exam 1.1 - Human Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1 Anatomy the study of the parts of the body and how they relate to each other o Subdivisions

BSCI201 Em Exam 1.1 - Human Anatomy and Physiology Chapter...

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Human Anatomy and Physiology: Chapter 1Anatomy: the study of the parts of the body and how they relate to each otheroSubdivisions:Gross or macroscopic- the study of large body parts visible to the naked eyeRegional- all the structures in a particular region of the bodySystemic- structure of the body are studied by the systemsMicroscopic- very small structures that cannot be viewed with the naked eye- use microscopeCytology- cellsHistology- tissuesDevelopmental- structural changes (such as growth) that occur in the body throughout the life spanOrientation and directional termsoSuperior- toward the head/aboveoInferior- away from head/belowoVentral- toward front of the body/in front of (anterior)oDorsal- toward back of the body/behind (posterior)oMedial- toward middleoLateral- away from the middle of bodyoIntermediate- between a more medial and a more lateral structureoProximal- closer to the attachment of a limb to the body trunkoDistal- away from attachmentoSuperficial- toward or at the surfaceoDeep- more internal3 body planes and sectionsoFrontal (coronal) plane- vertical cut; anterior and posterior parts oSagittal plane- vertical cut; left and rightMidsagittal plane- exactly in the middle; equal left and rightParasagittal plane- not in the middle; unequal left and rightoTransverse (cross section) plane- horizontal cut; superior and inferior partsAnatomical positionoBody erectoFeet slightly apartoPalms face forwardoThumbs point away from the body2 main body cavitiesoDorsal body cavitySuperior cranial cavity Contains brainInferior vertebral cavity Contains spinal cord
oVentral body cavity (larger)Separated by the diaphragm into:Superior thoracic Contains heart, lungs, esophagus and tracheaHeart is medial to lungs/ lungs are lateral to the heartInferior abdomino-pelvic cavity Contains most of digestive system, urinary system, reproductive systemDivided into 9 regions (smaller regions) add pictureFor larger regions= 4 quadrant Theme of compartmentalizationoEach organ in a body cavity is surrounded by its own membranes oOrgans in dorsal body cavitysurrounded by membranes called meninges oOrgan in ventral body cavitysurrounded by serous membranes Have specific namesSurrounding heart= pericardial sacSurrounding lungs= pleural sacSurrounding structures in the abdomino-pelvic cavity= peritoneal sac Advantages of compartmentalizationoProtection form trauma oProtection from infectionPathogens cannot spread easily from one organ to another in the same body cavityoHold organs in the right anatomical positionsoFluid produced by the membranes reduces friction by acting as a lubricant Fluid is between the two layers (parietal and visceral) Physiology= the study of the function of the body’s partsoSystemic physiology- the study of the function of the systems11 organ systems

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