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Unformatted text preview: s town and that his duties will keep him in the
thick of the danger, we must consider our policy. Are we to aim at cowardice—or at courage, with consequent pride—
or at hatred of the Germans?
Well, I am afraid it is no good trying to make him brave. Our research department has not yet discovered (though
success is hourly expected) how to produce any virtue. This is a serious handicap. To be greatly and effectively wicked
a man needs some virtue. What would Attila have been without his courage, or Shylock without self-denial as regards
the flesh? But as we cannot supply these qualities ourselves, we can only use them as supplied by the Enemy—and this
means leaving Him a kind of foothold in those men whom, otherwise, we have made most securely our own. A very
unsatisfactory arrangement, but, I trust, we shall one day learn to do better.
Hatred we can manage. The tension of human nerves during noise, danger, and fatigue, makes them prone to any
violent emotion and it is only a question of guiding this susceptibility into the right channels. If conscience resists, http://members.fortunecity.com/phantom1/books2/c._s._lewis_-_the_screwtape_letters.htm 2/07/2008 THE SCREWTAPE LETTERS Page 31 of 34 muddle him. Let him say that he feels hatred not on his own behalf but on that of the women and children, and that a
Christian is told to forgive his own, not other people's enemies. In other words let him consider himself sufficiently
identified with the women and children to feel hatred on their behalf, but not sufficiently identified to regard their
enemies as his own and therefore proper objects of forgiveness.
But hatred is best combined with Fear. Cowardice, alone of all the vices, is purely painful—horrible to anticipate,
horrible to feel, horrible to remember; Hatred has its pleasures. It is therefore often the compensation by which a
frightened man reimburses himself for the miseries of Fear. The more he fears, the more he will hate. And Hatred is
also a great anodyne for shame. To make a deep wound in his charity, you should therefore first defeat his courage.
Now this is a ticklish business. We have made men proud of most vices, but not of cowardice. Whenever we have
almost succeeded in doing so, the Enemy permits a war or an earthquake or some other calamity, and at once courage
becomes so obviously lovely and important even in human eyes that all our work is undone, and there is still at least
one vice of which they feel genuine shame. The danger of inducing cowardice in our patients, therefore, is lest we
produce real self-knowledge and self-loathing with consequent repentance and humility. And in fact, in the last war,
thousands of humans, by discovering their own cowardice, discovered the whole moral world for the first time. In peace
we can make many of them ignore good and evil entirely; in danger, the issue is forced upon them in a guise to which
even we cannot blind them. There is here a cruel dilemma before us. If we promoted justice and charity among men, we
should be play...
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2014 for the course MIS 304 taught by Professor Mejias during the Spring '07 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.
- Spring '07