African Responses to Imperialism Stations.pdf - African...

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African Responses to Imperialism Stations Sokoto Caliphate 1. From exile he called for holy war against the leaders of Gobir and other Hausa city states. Gathering a large army of Fulani and Hausa supporters he conquered Gobir and eventually Sokoto, Kano, Katsina, and the other major city states. 2. By 1903 the Sokoto Caliphate fell to the French and British colonial armies. Under indirect colonial administration, Great Britain, which assumed control over 80% of the Empire, allowed the Sultan to remain as a ceremonial ruler. His successors, including Muhammad Sa’adu Abubakar, who became Sultan on November 2, 2006, continued to wield considerable influence over the populace. (I think) 3. Dan Fodio, Bello, and Abdullahi while known primarily for their military skills, also promoted scholarship. Each contributed booksof poetry and texts on religion, politics, and history. They encouraged scholarship among the Muslim elite. In fact because of its unchallenged military power the Sultanate created a period of peace and prosperity across the eastern savanna that was rare for that period in African history. 4. By 1903 the Sokoto Caliphate fell to the French and British colonial armies. Under indirect colonial administration, Great Britain, which assumed control over 80% of the Empire, allowed the Sultan to remain as a ceremonial ruler. His successors, including Muhammad Sa’adu Abubakar, who became Sultan on November 2, 2006, continued to wield considerable influence over the populace. Xhosa Cattle Killing 1. Since the arrival of the first European settlers in the 1770s, the Xhosas had seen their land seized, their cattle stolen and their people subjugated and killed. 2. The mass cattle killing happened while the Xhosa people were at war with well-equipped British settlers. The movement was started when a Xhosa prophetess, Nongqawuse, claimed that if the Xhosa killed all their cattle and destroyed their corn, their ancestors would return to drive out the European settlers. 3. Ultimately, this led to the death of forty thousand Xhosa people by starvation. The mass cattle killing happened while the Xhosa people were at war with well-equipped British settlers. 4. British desire for natural resources, slave labors and political dominance brought about long-term effects to South Africa, the negative effects include widespread racial discrimination and economic exploitation, but there were few positive effects which were the advances in agriculture, mining industry and education.

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