Unformatted text preview: r offerings at the tomb had to be organized. The best way to accomplish this was to set up a mortuary foundation by designating the income from a given parcel of land for that purpose. • available tomb equipment • magic empowerment (funerary ritual, funerary spells) Servant ﬁgurines: Ushebti (Shabti, Shawabti) In the Egyptian conception, people were as unequal in the afterlife as in earthly life, and existing documents disclose no true interest in what happened to ordinary people after death. The sources for the Egyptian afterlife: – the tomb as a building (from the Predynastic period) / the burial – objects the deceased took along into the tomb (from the mid-ﬁfth
millennium onward): the funerary equipment – the images placed on the walls of tombs (from the third dynasty on) – texts describing the afterlife and religious compositions protecting the
deceased (from the late ﬁfth dynasty on) – the human remains themselves Compare to earlier custom (prehistoric): dismemberment of the body Many ideas about the "Egyptian" afterlife are ideas prevalent in texts and depictions of the elite – in that sense, they are "exceptional" Important: distinction between "private" and "royal" afterlife – “private” = “non-royal” – distinction on account of the different theological status & afterlife of the king as opposed to the rest of the population => speciﬁc standardized tomb architecture (pyramid) and funerary texts (preserved only in the Old/New Kingdom and 3rd Intermediate Period) – no private market – “private” tombs ultimately depended on the king • employment / occupation / ﬁnancial resources • access to materials, craftsmen, religious texts (where used) • permission for architectural forms / texts / depictions – variety of tomb layouts, decoration, funerary equipment: Private tombs of the Middle Kingdom Objectives of this class: – to understand the notion of “private tomb” in the Middle Kingdom – overview of the main archite...
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This document was uploaded on 02/06/2014.
- Spring '14