1.Amarna - Yourresearchessay . ,3vols,Oxford:OUP2001

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Your research essay
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The textbook will provide you with some preliminary informa8on on your topic and bibliographic references. There are useful encyclopedias with overview ar8cles on many themes pertaining to Egyp8an religion: – The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, 3 vols, Oxford: OUP 2001. (Koerner, reference sec1on, DT58.O94 2001; h>p://www.oxford‐ancientegypt.com). – Jack M. Sasson (ed.), Civiliza8ons of the Ancient Near East, volumes 1‐4, Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1995 (Koerner, reference sec1on, DS57 C55 1995) – I. Shaw/P. Nicholson, The Princeton Dic8onary of Ancient Egypt, London: Bri8sh Museum Press, 1995 (Koerner, reference sec1on, DT.58 S55 2008) – Toby A.H. Wilkinson, The Thames and Hudson Dic8onary of Ancient Egypt, London: Thames and Hudson, 2005 (Koerner, reference sec1on, DT.58 W55 2005) Online bibliographic tools in English are Aigyptos: h>p://www.aigyptos.uni‐muenchen.de/indexe.htm (does not work with Safari but most other browsers, e.g. Internet Explorer, Firefox) and h>p://www2.ivv1.uni‐muenster.de/litw3/Aegyptologie/index01.htm (for searches in English, click on the English bu\on in the le] column)
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The Amarna Age – ca. 1350‐1330 BCE Main protagonists Amenophis IV (1353‐1336) renamed himself Akhenaten Nefer11 Six daughters Establishment of a monotheis1c belief
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Controversial judgments about Amenophis IV / Akhenaten – one of the „principal minds of antiquity“ and one of the leading figures of mankind, – the „first idealist“ in history, a „bold mind, disseminating ideas that went infinitely beyond the comprehension of his times“
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– a "false prophet" – a sickly fanatic, even „not an intellectual heavyweight“, „a poor character with a tendency towards bragging"
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a „fair world full of sunshine“, or a „time of religious intolerance, persecution and police observation“?
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New excava8on of workers' cemetery
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Projec8on of modern ideas onto the Amarna Age
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Frida Kahlo: Moses (1945)
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Early history at Thebes – tradi8onal start, from year 3 onward implementa8on of a new religion
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Monumental colossi from Gempaaton temple at Karnak – in year 4, Aten placed at head of pantheon – funerary gods are eliminated, other gods S8ll permi\ed – controversial interpretas8ons of the statuary
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A departure from tradi8on in year 5 – founda8on of a new sacred residence in Middle Egypt Akhetaten, “the horizon of Aten”
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Boundary stelae demarcate the city
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The god Aten – name lit. “sun disk”, emphasizes physical form of the god (by contrast: true appearance of gods had always been considered unknown!) – name appears earlier, but not as a god – belief in sun‐god had been increasingly popular, but not exclusive
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