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Unformatted text preview: privilege of the king and priests delegated by him) • Evidence for personal religion prior to the New Kingdom is limited. • Some personal names hint at a personal rela'onship between the deity and the bearer of the name. A few texts of the Middle Kingdom also make brief references to personal worship. This does by no means signify that personal religion did not exist prior to the New Kingdom but not everything could be expressed in texts and depic'ons in certain contexts. A set of rules applied (“decorum”) Sources • Archaeological sources (e.g., ear stelae, “Amun who hears prayers”). • – biographical inscrip'ons, • – hymns, • – vo've inscrip'ons and wishes on scarabs, • – “wisdom” or instruc'onal literature • – prayers (onen peniten'al) of individuals. The prayers of individuals, inscribed on stelae dedicated to the deity as vo've oﬀerings, express sorrow for wrongdoing and thanks for forgiveness. The bulk of our evidence comes from the Deir el‐Medina. Other places (Asyut). Stele of workmen from Deir el‐Medineh "Hearing ear stelae" – Un'l the Middle Kingdom, the...
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- Spring '14