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Unformatted text preview: wer and
resources by one group over
another. Race is historically
and socially constructed,
created (and recreated) by
how people are perceived and
treated in the normal actions
of everyday life.” Over time, beliefs and practices about
power and privilege were woven into
national legal and political doctrine.
While committing to principles of
freedom, opportunity, and democracy,
America found ways to justify slavery,
for example, by deﬁning Africans as nonhuman. This made it possible to deny
Africans rights and freedoms granted
to “all men” who were “created equal.”
Only when white Southerners wanted
to increase their political power in the
legislature did they advocate to upgrade
Africans’ legal status to three-ﬁfths of a
human being. Thus, from the earliest
moments in our history, racial group
identities granted access to resources and
power to those who were “white” while
excluding those who were “other” legally,
politically, and socially.
Expressions of racism have evolved
markedly over the course of American
history, from slavery through Jim Crow Mannin...
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- Spring '14