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Unformatted text preview: Now the number of
research papers related to walking and cycling is growing rapidly. A recent review of evidence on
cycling as a commuting mode (Heinen et al., 2010) found more than 100 relevant studies, the
majority of them including empirical evidence. The interest is not only within academia, it is also
evident in the fi eld. Some of the largest and most prosperous cities in the world, New York, London
and Paris, amongst others, are adopting pro-walking and cycling policies, investing in appropriate
supporting infrastructure, and have recently (Paris and London) rolled out large cycle -hire schemes.
Transport strategies for most cities include an element (at least offi cially) that promotes the
use of these modes. Despite this, transport, even for short distances, is still heavily
dominated by the use of the private car. Perhaps one of the first realizations emerging from
the latest research on walking and cycling is that promoting walking and cycling use is not just a
simple question of infrastructure provision. [____] No one will use it- only 10% of jobs are near mass transit
O’Toole, 2011 - senior fellow at the Cato Institute (Randal, “Transportation: From the Top Down or
Bottom Up?,” 5/25, http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/transportation-top-down-or-bottom)
Central planners' fascination with trains is a wonder to behold. A group called Reconnecting A merica
laments that only 14 million American jobs — about 10 percent — are located within a quarter
mile of transit, by which they mean rail transit. The group advocates spending a quarter of a trillion
dollars to increase this to 17.5 million jobs, or 12.5 percent.
Simply putting transit close to jobs, however, doesn't mean people will ride it. The Brookings
Institution recently ranked San Jose as the second-most transit-accessible urban area in
America, while Chicago was ranked 46th. Yet the Census Bureau says only 3.4 percent of San
Jose commuters use transit, compared with 13.2 percent in Chicago. 20 | P a g e Mass Transit Negative BDL No Solvency – Not Sustainable [____] [____] Mass transit isn’t economically sustainable and will collapse
O’Toole, 2008 - senior fellow at the Cato Institute (Randal, “Light-Rail Systems Are a False
Promise,” 9/16, http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/lightrail-systems-are-false-promise
Rail transit has become such an albatross around the necks of the American cities that have it that it
is hard to imagine that anyone of good will would wish it upon Kansas City. Rail transit is expensive
to build, to operate and maintain. One of rail transit’s dirty secrets is that the entire system rails, cars, electrical facilities, stations - must be replaced, rebuilt or rehabilitated roughly every
30 years. This costs almost as much as the original construction, which means for taxpayers
that rails are a "pay now, pay more later" proposition. The Chicago Transit Authority is on the
verge of financial collapse. The agency estimates...
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- Spring '14