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no one will use it only 10 of jobs are near mass

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Unformatted text preview: Now the number of research papers related to walking and cycling is growing rapidly. A recent review of evidence on cycling as a commuting mode (Heinen et al., 2010) found more than 100 relevant studies, the majority of them including empirical evidence. The interest is not only within academia, it is also evident in the fi eld. Some of the largest and most prosperous cities in the world, New York, London and Paris, amongst others, are adopting pro-walking and cycling policies, investing in appropriate supporting infrastructure, and have recently (Paris and London) rolled out large cycle -hire schemes. Transport strategies for most cities include an element (at least offi cially) that promotes the use of these modes. Despite this, transport, even for short distances, is still heavily dominated by the use of the private car. Perhaps one of the first realizations emerging from the latest research on walking and cycling is that promoting walking and cycling use is not just a simple question of infrastructure provision. [____] No one will use it- only 10% of jobs are near mass transit O’Toole, 2011 - senior fellow at the Cato Institute (Randal, “Transportation: From the Top Down or Bottom Up?,” 5/25, http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/transportation-top-down-or-bottom) Central planners' fascination with trains is a wonder to behold. A group called Reconnecting A merica laments that only 14 million American jobs — about 10 percent — are located within a quarter mile of transit, by which they mean rail transit. The group advocates spending a quarter of a trillion dollars to increase this to 17.5 million jobs, or 12.5 percent. Simply putting transit close to jobs, however, doesn't mean people will ride it. The Brookings Institution recently ranked San Jose as the second-most transit-accessible urban area in America, while Chicago was ranked 46th. Yet the Census Bureau says only 3.4 percent of San Jose commuters use transit, compared with 13.2 percent in Chicago. 20 | P a g e Mass Transit Negative BDL No Solvency – Not Sustainable [____] [____] Mass transit isn’t economically sustainable and will collapse O’Toole, 2008 - senior fellow at the Cato Institute (Randal, “Light-Rail Systems Are a False Promise,” 9/16, http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/lightrail-systems-are-false-promise Rail transit has become such an albatross around the necks of the American cities that have it that it is hard to imagine that anyone of good will would wish it upon Kansas City. Rail transit is expensive to build, to operate and maintain. One of rail transit’s dirty secrets is that the entire system rails, cars, electrical facilities, stations - must be replaced, rebuilt or rehabilitated roughly every 30 years. This costs almost as much as the original construction, which means for taxpayers that rails are a "pay now, pay more later" proposition. The Chicago Transit Authority is on the verge of financial collapse. The agency estimates...
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