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36 p a g e mass transit negative bdl states cp

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Unformatted text preview: ral funds for projects that they may not need. For example, the federal ARRA program funds capital improvements, while state and local sources may instead fund more necessary operating measures. Agencies may choose to apply for federal funds (e.g. ARRA) for projects simply because the funds are available, even if the agency would not undertake these projects otherwise. [____] Federal funding is inefficient Gordon, 2011 – Economic Analyst at Charles River Associates (Michael, “Funding Urban Mass Transit in the United States”, Boston College Economics Honor’s Thesis, http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2007981, p. 45-46, 3-23-11)//AWV Including only total capital funding with a breakdown of operating funding levels produces similar results regarding levels of funding.144 Again, the federal operating funding term has a very large coefficient (2.146). This implies that the total federal funding term coefficient of the earlier regression is not greater than one solely due to capital funding considerations. This exemplifies that federal funding is also less effective than other levels of government at providing operating funding. An increase in one dollar of federal funding for operating expenses increases total expenses by over two dollars according to this regression, demonstrating that increasing federal funding would not help decrease urban mass transit agency deficits. 36 | P a g e Mass Transit Negative BDL States CP Solvency [____] States comparatively better for mass transit funding Gordon, 2011 – Economic Analyst at Charles River Associates (Michael, “Funding Urban Mass Transit in the United States”, Boston College Economics Honor’s Thesis, http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2007981, p. 53, 3-23-11)//AWV However, the federal government should continue to stay away from funding operating expenses unless it gives funds through the state and local governments in a similar proportional process. The state and local governments appear best equipped to handle operating funding. Local governments should continue to heavily fund operating expenses to ensure that the systems continue to operate, as urban mass transit systems provide an important service. State governments, however, must further consider equity concerns when funding the urban mass transit systems since often many of the state residents do not live near the systems and do not necessarily benefit from its operation. For example, citizens of western Massachusetts do not benefit greatly from continued MBTA operations in Boston. Yet, state dollars are extremely important to keep these systems running, and state funding reduces the deficit effectively. 37 | P a g e Mass Transit Negative BDL Capitalism Link [____] Public Transportation will be implemented to serve capitalist interests and widen inequality Farmer 2011 Farmer Sociology Dep’t Roosevelt University 2011 Stephanie Uneven public transportation development in neoliberalizing Chicago, USA Environment and Planning http://envplan.com/epa/fulltext/a43/a43409.pdf,KB Public transportation policy is one dimension of spatial restructuring deployed by entrepreneurial governments to create place-based competitive advantages for global capital....
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This document was uploaded on 02/06/2014.

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