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7 while the investments set forth by the prwg are

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Unformatted text preview: g. Manufacturing is the production of goods. Monopoly. A monopoly is an entity that has complete control. Oil dependence. Oil dependence refers to the idea that a country needs to import its oil in order to have enough to meet the domestic demand for oil. Revenue. Revenue is money that is taken in or earned as part of a particular project. State. State refers to the individual 50 states. Spearhead. Spearhead means to lead. Strait of Hormuz. The Strait of Hormuz is a narrow, strategically important strait between the Gulf of Oman in the southeast and the Persian Gulf. On the north coast is Iran and on the south coast is the United Arab Emirates and Musandam, an exclave of Oman. Acronyms PWRG. Passenger Rail Working Group UCS. Union of Concerned Scientists 4|Page High Speed Rail Affirmative BDL 1AC 1/5 Contention 1 – The Current Situation United States passenger rail capacity is becoming maxed out – more investment is needed American Society of Civil Engineers 2009 (“Rail”, http://www.infrastructurereportcard.org/fact-sheet/rail , DOA: 4-20-12) Amtrak anticipates reaching and exceeding capacity in the near future on some routes . For example, approximately half of trains traveling on one northeast regional line were 85% full and 62% were at least 75% full during one week in July 2008. Even though the current economic downturn has dampened growth, trains will soon reach capacity as the economy rebounds and the growth patterns of recent years are reestablished, and the fleet of cars and locomotives continues to age. In the long term, the Passenger Rail Working Group (PRWG), which was formed as part of the National Surface Transportation Policy and Revenue Study Commission, determined that an annual investment of $7.4 billion through 2016, totaling $66.3 billion, is needed to ad dress the total capital cost of a proposed intercity rail network. It is further estimated that an additional $158.6 billion is needed between 2016 and 2030 and an additional $132.3 billion between 2031 and 2050 to achieve the ideal intercity network proposed by the PRWG. These costs do not include the mandated safety upgrades for freight rail lines that carry both passenger as well as freight traffic and for those routes that carry toxic chemicals as required by the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 . 7 While the investments set forth by the PRWG are significant, the benefits would be significant as well. The PRWG estimated a net fuel savings of nearly $4 billion per year by diverting passengers to rail if the proposed vision was adopted. 5 In addition, the investments would reduce the need for even greater capacity investments in other modes. Intercity passenger rail faces particular concerns not faced by other modes of transportation, such as the lack of a dedicated revenue source . Amtrak owns and/or operates 656 miles of track that are maintained and upgraded using funds from its general operating budget, impacting its ability to fund other projects. The annual congressional appropriations process has provid...
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