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Unformatted text preview: g. Manufacturing is the production of goods.
Monopoly. A monopoly is an entity that has complete control.
Oil dependence. Oil dependence refers to the idea that a country needs to import its oil in order to
have enough to meet the domestic demand for oil.
Revenue. Revenue is money that is taken in or earned as part of a particular project.
State. State refers to the individual 50 states.
Spearhead. Spearhead means to lead.
Strait of Hormuz. The Strait of Hormuz is a narrow, strategically important strait between the Gulf of
Oman in the southeast and the Persian Gulf. On the north coast is Iran and on the south coast is the
United Arab Emirates and Musandam, an exclave of Oman.
PWRG. Passenger Rail Working Group
UCS. Union of Concerned Scientists 4|Page High Speed Rail Affirmative BDL
1AC 1/5 Contention 1 – The Current Situation
United States passenger rail capacity is becoming maxed out – more investment is needed
American Society of Civil Engineers 2009
(“Rail”, http://www.infrastructurereportcard.org/fact-sheet/rail , DOA: 4-20-12)
Amtrak anticipates reaching and exceeding capacity in the near future on some routes . For
example, approximately half of trains traveling on one northeast regional line were 85% full and 62%
were at least 75% full during one week in July 2008. Even though the current economic downturn has
dampened growth, trains will soon reach capacity as the economy rebounds and the growth
patterns of recent years are reestablished, and the fleet of cars and locomotives continues to age. In
the long term, the Passenger Rail Working Group (PRWG), which was formed as part of the National
Surface Transportation Policy and Revenue Study Commission, determined that an annual
investment of $7.4 billion through 2016, totaling $66.3 billion, is needed to ad dress the total capital
cost of a proposed intercity rail network. It is further estimated that an additional $158.6 billion is
needed between 2016 and 2030 and an additional $132.3 billion between 2031 and 2050 to achieve
the ideal intercity network proposed by the PRWG. These costs do not include the mandated safety
upgrades for freight rail lines that carry both passenger as well as freight traffic and for those routes
that carry toxic chemicals as required by the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 . 7 While the
investments set forth by the PRWG are significant, the benefits would be significant as well. The
PRWG estimated a net fuel savings of nearly $4 billion per year by diverting passengers to rail if the
proposed vision was adopted. 5 In addition, the investments would reduce the need for even greater
capacity investments in other modes. Intercity passenger rail faces particular concerns not faced
by other modes of transportation, such as the lack of a dedicated revenue source . Amtrak
owns and/or operates 656 miles of track that are maintained and upgraded using funds from its
general operating budget, impacting its ability to fund other projects. The annual congressional
appropriations process has provid...
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- Spring '14