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Unformatted text preview: n response to gasoline prices—between
about 40 and 50 trips a year, settling at 45 trips per year in 2008. 30 Although the national average
is 44 trips per urban resident, fewer than two dozen urban areas out of the more than 320 that
provide transit service exceed this average. Transit systems in nearly half of all urban areas with
transit service attract fewer than 10 rides per resident per year. As Table 1 suggests, urban areas
with high rates of transit ridership tend to have large concentrations of jobs at the urban core
(such as New York City; San Francisco; and Washington, DC) or are college towns (as in State
College, Pennsylvania; Ames, Iowa; and Champaign–Urbana, Illinois). The presence or absence of
expensive rail transit does not seem to be an important factor in the overall use of transit.
While per capita ridership may have remained steady at about 40 to 50 trips per year, transit’s share
of travel has declined as per capita urban driving has grown. From 1970 through 2008, per capita
transit ridership stagnated, but per capita driving of personal vehicles grew by 120 percent. 31 As a
result, transit’s share of motorized urban travel fell from 4.2 percent in 1970 to 1.8 percent in
2008. 32 [____] Mass transit fails – people empirically won’t use it even if it is funded
Wall Street Journal, 2012 – editorial (“Why Your Highway Has Potholes,” 4/15,
Since 1982 government mass-transit subsidies have totaled $750 billion (in today's dollars), yet
the share of travelers using transit has fallen by nearly one-third, according to Heritage
Foundation transportation expert Wendell Cox. Federal data indicate that in 2010 in most major
cities more people walked to work or telecommuted than used public transit.
Brookings Institution economist Cliff Winston finds that "the cost of building rail systems is
notorious for exceeding expectations, while ridership levels tend to be much lower than
anticipated." He calculates that the only major U.S. rail system in which the benefits outweigh the
government subsidies is San Francisco's BART, and no others are close to break-even. 19 | P a g e Mass Transit Negative BDL No Solvency – No Riders [____] Infrastructure alone does not solve
Miles Tight and Moshe Giovoni 2010
(The Role of Walking and Cycling in Advancing Healthy and Sustainable Urban Areas” BUILT
ENVIRONMENT VOL 36 NO 4)
Sustainable mobility is the new paradigm in transport planning and policy (Banister, 2008) and
‘Planning and health is big news’ (Boarnet, 2006, p. 5) according to a special issue of the Journal of
the American Planning Association on ‘Planning’s role in building healthy cities’. At the heart of the
new planning and policy model are two modes of transport which until recently did not seem to
register as being important, at least in the eyes of many researchers, planners and policy-makers.
These modes are walking and cycling, commonly referred to as ‘active travel’....
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This document was uploaded on 02/06/2014.
- Spring '14