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Further the us coast guard was removed from the us

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Unformatted text preview: eral, state, and local governments all may have oversight over some portion of port activities. In addition, some ports are managed by local or regional port authorities, whereas others are managed by local or state governments or by private entities. 25 | P a g e Port Security Affirmative BDL States Counterplan Answers [___] [___] Federal jurisdiction over sea port security Ariel Ghaith Pinto, Engineering Management and Systems Engineering Old Dominion University, 2011 (US Port Security; Chapter 12) The U.S. Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA), designed to protect U.S. ports and waterways from terrorist attacks, was signed into law on November 25, 2002. The MTSA seeks to prevent security incidents in the maritime supply chain, in particular, the port link in this chain. The MTSA also incorporated the international security requirements found in the International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Code that was ratified earlier in 2002 by the United Nations’ International Maritime Organization (IMO). The ISPS Code is a risk management code for securing ships and ports, e.g., monitoring the access and control of people and cargo to ships and ports and ensuring the availability of security communications. The Code requires ports and marine terminals, serving seagoing vessels of 500 gross tonnage and upwards, to have security plans, officers and certain equipment in place (i.e., in order to comply with the Code) by July 1, 2004. Port security plans include access control, responses to security threats and drills to train staff (Staff, 2004). On March 1, 2003 the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was established. The DHS has federal responsibility for funding, standards and strategies (to do so) for the security of ports and other transportation infrastructures. Further, the U.S. Coast Guard was removed from the U.S. Department of Transportation and placed under the authority of the DHS. The U.S. Coast Guard’s maritime security program includes, for example, the deployment of Coast Guard personnel as “Sea Marshalls” aboard certain ships entering and leaving ports, the creation of the High Interest Vessel Boarding Program and the establishment of port security zones around ships and high-risk port facilities (to prevent sabotage or other subversive acts). Sea Marshals provide security to a vessel’s pilot and crew during its transit while in port, thereby diminishing the potential for vessel hijacking. Security zones protect port waterways, vessels and facilities from security incidents. The Coast Guard has also established the Maritime Security Level (MARSEC) system to indicate the severity of a security threat: 1) level one -- a threat is possible, but not likely; 2) level two -- terrorists are likely active in an area; and 3) level three -- a threat is imminent to a given target. The DSH unit, the U.S. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP), has established voluntary international security programs that are designed to provide point-of-origin to final destination visibility and control over containerized freight movements....
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