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Unformatted text preview: avel, in spite of strong evidence to the
contrary.40 As long as rail transit continues to be erroneously viewed in this way by the
public, it will continue to be an increasing drain on social welfare. 14 | P a g e Mass Transit Negative BDL No Solvency – Social Inequality
[____] The problem with racism and poverty is not mobility rather its residential segregation.
Turner at al 2009 (Margery Austin Turner, Vice President for Research at the Urban Institute, where she leads effor ts
to frame and conduct a forward-looking agenda of policy research and Karina Fortuny. Researcher at the Urban Institute,
“Residential Segregation and Low-Income Working Families”, February 2009, DM) Segregated housing patterns not only separate white and minority neighborhoods, but
also help create and perpetuate the stubborn disparities in employment, education,
income, and wealth. More specifically, res- idential segregation distances minority
jobseekers (particularly blacks) from areas of employment growthand opportunity.
Beginning in the late 1960s, John Kain argued that the concentration of blacks in segre- gated
central-city neighborhoods limited their access to employment, as growing numbers of
jobs moved to predominantly white suburban locations (Kain 1968). As demand for labor
shifted away from the neighborhoods where blacks were concentrated, discrimination in
housing and mortgage markets prevented blacks from moving to communities where job
growth was occurring, and information and transportation barriers made it difficult to find
and retain jobs in these distant locations. William Julius Wilson (1987) expanded on this basic
“spatial mismatch” story, arguing that the exodus of jobs from central-city locations,
combined with the persistence of residential segregation, contributed to rising
unemployment among black men during the 1980s, as well as to worsening poverty and
distress in black neighborhoods.2 More recent evidence confirms that residential
segregation continues to separate minorities from centers of employment opportunity,
and that this separation contributes to unequal employment outcomes (Raphael and Stoll 2002).
But the traditional image of minorities trapped in central-city neighborhoods while jobs
disperse to more and more distant suburban locations is probably too simplistic. Today,
minority workers (and especially low-skilled black workers) are still overrepresented in central
cities, while jobs (especially low-skill jobs) are widely dispersed throughout the suburbs. However,
in the decades since Kain first articulated the spa- tial mismatch hypothesis, many minorities have gained access to
housing in the suburbs. The barriers of segregation and discrimination are falling (slowly perhaps, but perceptibly), and non black minorities (whose
numbers are growing) appear to face substantially lower levels of segregation than blacks. Nonetheless, the suburban residential communities where minorities live are generally not the suburban jurisdictions
that offer the most promising job opportunities...
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- Spring '14