Varsity-Packet-Final

More specifically res idential segregation distances

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Unformatted text preview: avel, in spite of strong evidence to the contrary.40 As long as rail transit continues to be erroneously viewed in this way by the public, it will continue to be an increasing drain on social welfare. 14 | P a g e Mass Transit Negative BDL No Solvency – Social Inequality [____] The problem with racism and poverty is not mobility rather its residential segregation. Turner at al 2009 (Margery Austin Turner, Vice President for Research at the Urban Institute, where she leads effor ts to frame and conduct a forward-looking agenda of policy research and Karina Fortuny. Researcher at the Urban Institute, “Residential Segregation and Low-Income Working Families”, February 2009, DM) Segregated housing patterns not only separate white and minority neighborhoods, but also help create and perpetuate the stubborn disparities in employment, education, income, and wealth. More specifically, res- idential segregation distances minority jobseekers (particularly blacks) from areas of employment growthand opportunity. Beginning in the late 1960s, John Kain argued that the concentration of blacks in segre- gated central-city neighborhoods limited their access to employment, as growing numbers of jobs moved to predominantly white suburban locations (Kain 1968). As demand for labor shifted away from the neighborhoods where blacks were concentrated, discrimination in housing and mortgage markets prevented blacks from moving to communities where job growth was occurring, and information and transportation barriers made it difficult to find and retain jobs in these distant locations. William Julius Wilson (1987) expanded on this basic “spatial mismatch” story, arguing that the exodus of jobs from central-city locations, combined with the persistence of residential segregation, contributed to rising unemployment among black men during the 1980s, as well as to worsening poverty and distress in black neighborhoods.2 More recent evidence confirms that residential segregation continues to separate minorities from centers of employment opportunity, and that this separation contributes to unequal employment outcomes (Raphael and Stoll 2002). But the traditional image of minorities trapped in central-city neighborhoods while jobs disperse to more and more distant suburban locations is probably too simplistic. Today, minority workers (and especially low-skilled black workers) are still overrepresented in central cities, while jobs (especially low-skill jobs) are widely dispersed throughout the suburbs. However, in the decades since Kain first articulated the spa- tial mismatch hypothesis, many minorities have gained access to housing in the suburbs. The barriers of segregation and discrimination are falling (slowly perhaps, but perceptibly), and non black minorities (whose numbers are growing) appear to face substantially lower levels of segregation than blacks. Nonetheless, the suburban residential communities where minorities live are generally not the suburban jurisdictions that offer the most promising job opportunities...
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