S although african americans as a whole still face

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Unformatted text preview: ces of the Agency. Below are highlights of NHTSA’s FY 2013 budget proposal, which is based on the Administrations Reauthorization Policy Proposal for Surface Transporta tion. 9|Page Mass Transit Negative BDL No Harms – Segregation Declining [____] [____] Racial segregation has been reduced Lingqian Hu, assistant professor at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2010 (May 2010, “Urban Spatial Transformation and Job Accessibility: Spatial Mismatc h Hypothesis Revisited,” Google Scholar. -Hu-3392.pdf). During the last several decades, many metropolitan areas have experienced notable shifts in demographics. Racial segregation between African Americans and Whites has been one of the central issues in the U.S. Although African Americans as a whole still face great constraints in the housing and labor market, racial segregation has been reduced (Wilson, 1980; Massey 2001). Moreover, with the increasing size of the African American middle class, differences within African Americans have enlarged in terms of their residential locations and socioeconomic status (Wilson, 1987; Fischer, 2003). Furthermore, African Americans gradually have become a relatively smaller minority group as Hispanics and Asians immigrate to major cities. The original dichotomy of African Americans and Whites is no longer as crucial; rather, segmentations of other racial/ethnic groups are also relevant. At the same time, p oor people become more segregated from the affluent majority over time (Massey and Eggers, 1993; Abramson, Tobin, and VanderGoot, 1995). Economic segregation becomes increasingly evident in the urban spatial transformation. Therefore, instead of examining racial/ethnic minorities, this research focuses on low-income job seekers. Results of this research depict low-income job seekers’ different labor market conditions with respect to the spatial arrangements of low-income jobs and job seekers, and provide direct input to the planning and policy efforts which aim to reduce poverty. [____] The most recent studies indicate that segregation is declining in the US David Ariosto, staff writer at CNN, 2012 (Study: Segregation in U.S. on decline, but disparities persist, Segregation of African-Americans in cities and towns across the United States has dropped to its lowest level in more than a century, according to a recent study. The Manhattan Institute report, released two days before the start of Black History month, points to federal housing policies, changes in public perception and demographic shifts since the 1960s that have helped integrate the nation. Still, the study adds, America's social and income disparities continue. "We thought about racial inequality and thought that neighborhoods had something to do with it," said economist Jacob Vigdor of Duke University, who co-wrote the study with Edward Glaeser of Harvard University at the New York-based conservative think tank. 10 | P a g e Mass Tran...
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This document was uploaded on 02/06/2014.

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