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Structural violence operates more or less

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Unformatted text preview: ce in at least three major respects. *The lethal effects of structural violence operate continuously, rather than sporadically, whereas murders, suicides, executions, wars, and other forms of behavioral violence occur one at a time. *Structural violence operates more or less independently of individual acts; independent of individuals and groups (politicians, political parties, voters) whose decisions may nevertheless have lethal consequences for others. 20 | P a g e Mass Transit Affirmative BDL Answers to: Segregation Declining [____] [____] Segregation is increasing not decreasing Daniel Lichter, Cornell University, 2011 (http://npc.umich.edu/publications/u/2011-16%20NPC%20Working%20Paper.pdf, May 3, National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #11 – 16) Third, our analyses showed that patterns of racial and class segregation were distinct but overlapping phenomena. Poor minorities—both in metro and nonmetro areas—are highly ghettoized spatially at the macro-scale level (across communities and counties). Significantly, the poor and nonpoor—regardless of race—became more segregated from each other during the 2000s. Concentrated poverty was much higher among America’s minority rather than among white populations. Rural blacks, in particular, were especially likely to be concentrated in poor places and counties. Moreover, our multivariate models indicated that counties —even less populated nonmetro counties—with heavy concentrations of racial minorities (especially blacks) are most likely to have spatially segregated poor populations. The policy implications are clear: because spatial and social mobility often go hand-in-hand, the segregation of the minority poor from the nonpoor connotes persistent racial injustice, limited opportunities for upward social mobility, and the reproduction of poverty and inequality from one generation to the next. 21 | P a g e Mass Transit Affirmative BDL Solvency Extension [____] Central federal planning is crucial to alter patterns of urban segregation Robert D. Bullard, Glenn S. Johnson, and Angel O. Torres, Ph.D. in Sociology at Iowa State University; Associate Professor at Clark Atlanta University; Geographic Information Systems Training Spet, 2004 ( "Highway Robbery Transportation Racism And New Routes to Equity", Page 3 -5) People of color communities are not waiting for government, business or mainstream environmental groups to come up with a "silver-bullet solution to address the transportation racism that fuels suburban sprawl and uneven development. Some communities and groups are taking action. Whether central city, suburb, or rural, it will take a coordinated effort among the divergent interests to fix the nation's transportation problems. Transportation racism and suburban sprawl act in concert to suck the life out of central cities. Employing smart growth strategies to address both problems would go a long way towards bringing economic vitality back to many declining urban communities. It wil...
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