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The federal role in navigation maintenance and

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Unformatted text preview: benefited from a randomized nutrition intervention when they were young children earned wages that were 50% higher than those of nonparticipants three decades later [8]. Thus, it must be assumed that even when a multiyear price shock ends, the adverse consequences for the poor and food insecure continue for decades. The global financial crisis and recession are now adding to the burden on the poor as wages are lost, many small farmers find themselves unable to pay off their debts and capital for agriculture is further limited. With food and general costs of living on the rise, people in more than 60 countries turned to the streets in protest in 2007 and 2008. IFPRI estimates that recession and reduced investment in agriculture could raise international grain prices by 30% and push 16 million more children into malnutrition in 2020 compared with continued high economic growth and m aintained investments [7]. At a global scale, the decline in investments leading to cuts in agricultural supply seems to be stronger than the demand decline due to the recession. These trends might soon put again strong upward pressure on food prices combined with increased price volatility. The challenge of feeding the world has greatly increased. The recent hikes in food prices are not exceptionally high from a historical perspective but they have greatly increased the challenge of feeding the world's growing population [7]. Since the time of notoriously high food prices in the 1870s, world population has increased more than five times reaching 6.7 billion today and it is expected to reach 9 billion by 2050. To overcome existing hunger, feed an additional 2 billion people and accommodate rising demand from income growth, food production would have to be doubled by 2050. 18 | P a g e Inland Waterways Affirmative BDL Answers to: Inland Transportation Funded Now [___] [___] Existing financing inadequate Institute for Water Resources, Army Corps of Engineers, 2012 (April, US Port and Inland Waterways Modernization Strategy, http://www.iwr.usace.army.mil/docs/portswaterways/Port_and_Inland_Waterways_Options_for_the_F uture_Working_Draft_v1_2012_Apr_01.pdf) To fully meet the challenges of and realize the opportunities presented by increased use of postPanamax vessels in global trade, the existing capacity of the nation’s ports and waterways must be maintained and additional capacity must be built. Both paths require a significant financial commitment. The current level of USACE navigation funding is not adequate to meet the critical modernization needs of the nation and take advantage of these opportunities. Available financial options for meeting these needs vary from an increased Federal commitment to the divestiture of the Federal financial role. There is a growing consensus that the existing budgeting process and budget levels are not adequate to meet the critical needs of future modernization. The current process collects revenues for funding the Harbor Maintenance Trust Fund (HMTF), allocating those dollars to USACE navigation programs according to Federa...
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This document was uploaded on 02/06/2014.

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