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Thus residential segregation continues to put

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Unformatted text preview: . In many metropolitan regions, job growth has been the most robust in predominantly white suburbs and weakest in predominantly black suburbs (Turner 2008). Recent research indicates that nearly half of all low-skill jobs in the white suburbs are inaccessible by public transportation, making it particularly difficult for minority residents of other sub - areas to reach them (Stoll, Holzer, and Ihlanfeldt 2000). And the race or ethnicity of new hires into low - skill jobs generally matches the racial composition of the area where jobs are located (Stoll et al. 2000). Black workers in particular are underrepresented in jobs located in predominantly white suburban communities. And although jobs in the central business district may be accessible for workers of all races and ethnicities, these jobs tend to be highly competitive and may require higher skills (Holzer 2001). Thus, residential segregation continues to put considerable distance between minority workers—especially African Americans—and areas of greatest employment opportunity. Residential segregation also contributes to minorities’ unequal educational attainment, which reinforces their disadvantage in today’s labor market. 15 | P a g e Mass Transit Negative BDL No Solvency – Car Culture [____] [____] Car culture is too essential to our society – alternatives won’t be taken seriously Philip J Vergragt, Visiting Scholar at MIT, 2004 (Management for Sustainable Personal Mobility: The Case of Hydrogen Fuel Cells” Autumn 2004) So far, each of these solutions has captured only a very small fraction of the market, with the car (including SUVs and vans) continuing to be the preferred solution for personal mobility. This is no surprise if we take into account the entrenchment of the car system , and with it the petrol system, in Western industrialised societies (Knot et al. 2001). The inertia in such a system is enormous, not just for economic, scientific and technological infrastructure reasons, but also because of the vested interests of powerful key actors such as vehicle manufacturers and oil companies, mining companies, petrol stations, dealers and repair shops. Moreover, many authors have noted the powerful position of the car as a modern cultural icon (Grin et al. 2003). Governments do not escape societal preferences; on the contrar y, government policies are expressions of such preferences. Furthermore, governments can do what societal interest groups cannot: for instance, regulate emissions to air. However, governments in democratic industrialised societies do not regulate personal car use or choice of car. Hence, government regulation has, until recently, concentrated on controlling the negative impacts of car use (such as exhaust emissions), through technologies such as the catalytic converter, and by providing fiscal incentives to change consumers' behaviour: for example, by reducing fuel duty on unleaded petrol. Further, governments can increase tax on unleaded petrol (as has been done in Europe but much less so in the US) and they can regulate access to inner cities by p...
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